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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 55
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Article
Maiofis M. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2019. No. 4. P. 85-94.

The article explores the history and ideological implications behind the creation of the Suvorov and Nakhimov military boarding schools. The author argues that these educational institutions had several important functions within the Soviet society of the 1940s. The institutions promoted the model of educating new cadres of military elite, while employing, as their main pedagogical approach, a tricky combination of harsh discipline and demands of limited inventiveness and initiative. Another important task the schools were charged with was the provision of secure space (which included clothing and nutrition) for those boys whose fathers were either killed or still at the battle grounds of WWII. The formation of symbolically meaningful skills, such as ball dancing or horse-back riding, was essential for this new military elite generation, since such abilities meant to create self-identification and, most importantly, external perception in connecting these Soviet era cadets with the traditions of pre-revolutionary nobility upbringing. The young generation of future warriors was perceived as happy, well-trained, and loyal symbolic substitutes for their predecessors who perished during the Great Terror and the WWII. The author argues that all mentioned features have persisted till nowadays, and contemporary parents eagerly send children to study at military schools (and, correspondingly, to leave the family) in order to increase their ―competitiveness‖ for the future life.

Added: Feb 3, 2020
Article
Хромова Е. Б. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2014. № 1 (24). С. 97-105.
Added: Apr 24, 2014
Article
Кимерлинг А. С. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2017. № 4. С. 109-118.

Political campaigns were a common way of governing the country in the Stalin era. As a management mechanism, they help to understand the political prob lems of that time. Mobilization political campaigns had a certain structure: an ideological message through the central and then the local press; organizational stage; mobilization of masses; realization of the goals of the campaign accompanied by the supp ort of the press; report on progress (with publications in newspapers as well). Harvesting and sowing were typical mobilization political campaigns. The example of the Molotov region helps to examine the content of these campaigns in the post - war years, as well as some elements of the everyday life of the village that influenced the course of the campaigns. The Pravda newspaper, along with other central newspapers, regularly published articles aimed at stimulating the development of the obilization campaign on grain procurements and socialist obligations. Party organizations, clubs, and readers’ clubs had to conduct active propaganda work in the countryside; they organized general meetings, lectures, talks and developed radio networks. The collective farmers gave increased obligations, but the plans were not implemented and the authors of newspaper articles regularly criticized them; nevertheless, the report on the results was always optimistic. The reasons for the failure of the plans were different: they varied from problems with technology to simple theft. People were not materially interested in over - fulfilling plans; they tried to survive, as evidenced by rural everyday life. 

Added: Mar 6, 2018
Article
Манжурин Е. А. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2015. № 3. С. 116-122.

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The paper analyses uses of imperial period territorial heraldry in city symbols (emblems and coats of arms) adopted by Soviet cities in a grassroot initiative in poststalinist Soviet Union. Building on numerous local cases from Penza (1964) to Soviet Lithuania (1966-1970) and from Syktyvkar (1978) to Sumy (1988), the paper argues that in employing imperial heraldic elements laden with political overtones the creators of (legally dubious) Soviet city arms tried to establish imagined continuity with pre-Soviet (and essentially non-Soviet) history in effect producing alternative local visions of space and time. These visions emphasized historical continuity rather than rupture and radical change of both symbolic language and vision of time suggested by the centrally manufactured Soviet visuals. City arms combined distinctly Soviet elements with symbols borrowed from the pre-Soviet past, national symbolic repertoires and locally important elements. Such apposition eroded the superiority of the authoritative visual discourse and interpreted Soviet era as just one more period in multiple local histories. The imagined continuity in Soviet city symbols served as an instrument of doubt and posed subtle local challenges to the centrally designed symbolic and political order. The paper’s introduction of novel type of sources and its decentralized viewpoint opens new opportunities for study of center periphery relations, representations of time and space, local and Soviet identities and subjectivities in the late Soviet Union.

Added: Oct 11, 2015
Article
Глушков А. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2012. № 3. С. 180-183.

The article reviews the book of the American historian E. Lohr "Nationalizing the Russian Empire: The Campaign against Enemy Aliens during World War I".

Added: Nov 21, 2019
Article
Кимерлинг А. С. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2016. № 4. С. 104-114.

The article deals with the 1946 elections as a form of Stalin's political campaigns. Scenario of mobilization and repressive political campaigns was the same after the war. The first postwar elections to the Supreme Soviet had a ritual character and developed the tactics of mass mobilization in support of government’s initiatives. In the first stage of the campaign, the authorities published a directive article and a series of articles in central and local press; during the second phase, the agitators and members of election commissions were prepared to the elections; the third stage wasaimed at initiating activity of the people; in the fourth phase, the aims of the campaign were implemented when the election day was turned into a national holiday. After that, the government presented the public summary of the event. People reacted to the campaign in different ways. Based on the response, the author highlights four groups of the population: “the activists’ who supported the authorities completely and were actively involved in the campaign; “the activists from self-interest” who participated in the campaign for their own profit, believing it would help them to solve everyday problems; “the deviators” who avoided participation in the elections and expressed negative attitudes towards the elections in a hidden or open form; and “the conformists” who came to the electoral districts and voted as it was supposed to, but without showing their activity.

Added: Jan 24, 2017
Article
Корниенко С. И. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2017. № 4 (39). С. 78-91.
Added: Oct 20, 2019
Article
Глушков А. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2012. № 18. С. 271-277.

In spite of the evident progress in the study of Russian conservatism in the beginning of XXth century, which was achieved during the last 20 years, ideology and political activity and the role of the forward-looking nationalists in the activity of Progressive block did not become the object of detailed research. During the long period of time in historiography the Russian nationalists were considered to be a part of conservative forces, because researchers did not want to puzzle out their political aspirations.

The main reason of this is the shortage of historiographical sources. Besides several memoires of the participants of the events (Shulgin, Milukov,Gurko and others) the important role played the shorthand reports from the meetings of the bureau of Progressive Block and Duma. But the main source is «Kievlyanin», «literary and political newspaper of the West region». Officially this newspaper wasn’t the print of any party or faction but the main journalists of it were listed in Kiev club of Russian nationalists.

The main journalists of «Kievlyanin» were Savenko and Shulgin, the leaders of progressive nationalists. Their articles helps us to understand the political interests and main views of the whole party, course of the struggle with the right political forces and slow convergence with the progressive nationalists with the kadets. The most intensively these processes occurred during the First World War. Besides the records of State Duma «Kievlyanin» is the only informative source to analyze the faction of progressive nationalists.

Added: Nov 20, 2019
Article
Захаров А. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2016. Т. 35. № 4. С. 24-33.

The paper analyzes the courtiers’ literacy according to the first mass data nobility inspection («smotr shlyahetstva») of 1721–1722. The author clarifies the concept of the «tsaredvortsy» (courtiers) in the context of different self-identification of Muskovite rank-holders, as well as in terms of the government’s perception of the group of rank-holders in military and garrison service. The new term «authentic literacy» is proposed to define the understanding of literacy by people of the past. The author has determined the percentage of courtiers’ literacy and their age after studying their signatures in the documents of the inspection (the “skazki”) and in the arrival registration books. The article gives examples of models of teaching courtiers’ children. The author offers some elements of a methodology to clarify the adequacy of literacy data obtained while studying signatures in official documents.

Added: Jan 7, 2017
Article
Кирьянов И. К., Корниенко С. И., Гагарина Д. А. и др. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2017. Т. 36. № 1. С. 178-188.

In late imperial Russia, the political elite became more complicated due to the inclusion of the State Duma deputies and the elected members of the State Council in its membership. The paper is focused on studying the deputies of the Fourth Duma with the repeated parliamentary status, who constituted a distinct sub-elite group. The general description of the group is given, including the number of deputies, and the deputies' motives for participation in elections to the Duma. The authors evaluated the influence of the group on parliamentary activity on the base of positional analysis. Due to correlation analysis and faceted classification, socio-cultural types within the parliamentary subelite were identified. The study showed that the cohort of deputies with a repetitive parliamentary status was more homogeneous in terms of socio-cultural characteristics than the cohort of newly elected deputies. Significant differences in the socio-cultural appearance of those groups were determined by class, level of education and preparliamentary professions related to intellectual work.

Added: Aug 11, 2018
Article
Сметанин А. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2018. № 2. С. 145-154.
Added: Nov 11, 2019
Article
Поврозник Н. Г., Исмакаева И. Д. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2019. № 3 (46). С. 146-158.
Added: Oct 9, 2019
Article
Чащухин А. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2013. №  3 (23) . С. 144-153.

The article is devoted to the Soviet school of the late Stalinism. The Soviet education was intended to form a politically loyal citizen. In varying degrees all school subjects had an ideological basis. The teachers of physics and chemistry had to demonstrate the priority of Russian and Soviet science. The teachers of  geography demonstrated the strength and wealth of the Soviet motherland. But the main ideological subjects in school ware the humanitarians, first of all the history and the Constitution of the USSR.

The article considers the difficulties in teaching this school subjects. Learning of the native history and the main law of the Soviet state was not easy for schoolchildren. The management organs of education realized  it as a problem. The regional authority conducted the massive inspection of schools in the Molotov (Perm) region in 1949-50 school year. These materials have become the main sources for the article.

Learning of the schoolchildrens mistakes tell us not only about the ways of development of the Stalinism myth by new generation. Mistakes of schoolchildrens help us to understand the ideas of  teachers and officials of regional nomenclature about what is a norm and what is a deviation.

Stalin's myth in this analysis ceases to be monolithic. Development ideology faced with unavoidable gaps in the way of development and representation of the world. The main contradiction of the training became the gap between the neck (naive, visual) and text understanding of a myth. It created problems in in the broadcast of ideology. Like a theoretical basis in the article was used some ideas of Pierre Bourdieu.

 

Added: Mar 20, 2014
Article
Ковалев И. Г. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2017. № 3 (38). С. 138-147.

The article considers the problem of changes in the political development of Great Britain in the late 2000s. The author assesses the role of the 2008-2010 global financial crisis in the exacerbation of inter-party confrontation and the modernization of organizational structures of the leading political forces in the UK. The reasons for the obvious crisis of the ideas of the New Labour and the revival of the attractiveness of conservatism in the context of the crisis are given. The author describes in detail how the Tories revised their previous ideas and formed the concepts of “new compassionate conservatism” and “great society”. The author states that David Cameron tried to combine the basics of Thatcherism in the economic sphere with the need to solve urgent problems in social development. The role of the leading British think-tanks and experts in the development of new socio-economic policy projects is analyzed. The author traces the efforts of the conservatives to focus on issues important for most Britons, to offer their solutions, to improve the image of the Tories, and to take away the initiative from their political opponents in order to return to power. Based on official party documents and official public statements of the Tory leaders, the paper analyzes the processes of forming and promoting new programs aimed at adjusting the model of socio-economic development of the UK, overcoming the current acute problems of development, and ensuring sustainable growth in the post-crisis period. The interrelation of political battles of the late 2000s with key trends of contemporary political struggle in the UK is demonstrated.

Added: Oct 3, 2017
Article
Лейбович О. Л. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2012. № 2(19). С. 90-97.
Added: Nov 25, 2012
Article
Почекаев Р. Ю. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2019. № 2. С. 14-23.

The history of Mongolia in the 17th – early 20th centuries is covered mostly in the notes of Russian travelers and scholars, whereas their Western colleagues did not visit the country often. That is why their information on different aspects of the life of Mongols including its political and legal culture is of great value. The author analyzes the notes of Western travelers who visited Mongolia during different periods of its history and for different purposes – missionaries (T. Pereira, J.-F. Gerbillon, R.E. Huc and J. Gabet, F.A. Larson, etc.), diplomats (L. Lang, J. Bell, G.J. Unverzagt, C.F. de Bourboulon, W.W. Rockhill, C.W. Campbell, etc.), scientists and technicians (R. de Batz, S. Hedin, etc.), travelers (A. Michie, V. Megnan, etc.). The author deals with the information on important stages of Mongolian history: from its submission to the Qing Empire until the pre-revolutionary situation resulted in the foundation of an independent state. There are materials on political structure and legal relations of Mongols more or less included in all analyzed notes. Depending on purposes of visit to Mongolia and personal characteristics (such as position, level of education, etc.), each traveler paid more attention to specific features of political or legal life of Mongols. The question of Western (Europocentriс) view on the Mongol state and law is also considered in the article.

Added: Jul 15, 2019
Article
Балагуров Н. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2015. № 3 (30). С. 15-24.
Added: Oct 18, 2015
Article
Глушков А. В. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2011. № 3. С. 16-19.

The article analyzes domestic and foreign historiography of the "progressive nationalists" (progressivnie natsionalisty), who united Russian conservative elements in the Progressive block of Russian State Duma.

Added: Nov 20, 2019
Article
Рыбаков В. А. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2019. № 3 (46). С. 15-25.

In the article based on a mass source – listeners’ letters to “Radio Rossii” (“Radio of Russia”), the author investigates changes in the Russian citizens’ social memory of the Great Patriotic War (the 1941–1945 War) in the conditions of political and ideological pluralism of the 1990s. The collection of epistolary sources, which appeared as a result of creating a new Russian radio station in 1990, is examined on a number of parameters, such as topics of the letters, motivation of the appeal on the radio, the authors’ age and gender, time and geography of writing. The author concludes that in the 1990s, despite the persistence of the main points of the Soviet War myth, a number of new aspects of the memory about the War were included into the Russian public space and influenced the reformatting of the War political narrative. Among them, there are the expansion of the historical memory field due to a significant reduction of taboo topics, the erosion of the serious and heroic representation of the War, the use of the Great Patriotic War concept for interpreting the present and as one of the most important constructs of Russian patriotism and nationalism, and finally the proposal of an alternative concept for the May 9 commemoration

Added: Nov 24, 2019
Article
Танис К. А. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2019. № 3. С. 26-33.

This paper is devoted to the transformation of viewers’ perception in the USSR during the 1980s and 1990s. Through collecting and analyzing letters by spectators discovered in the archives and published in the revue Sovetskiy Ekran, this research is aimed to consider the norms and categories of film interpretation, as well as to understand of changes in historical reception during these times. This paper pays close attention to the complicated processes of popular cinema legitimation in the Soviet Union during the transformation of the whole Soviet film industry. Thus, the shift to the market system in the Soviet film industry revealed that filmmakers were not ready to work under the circumstances of market-driven film economy, oriented to the audience. Due to the censorship annulment and the leveling of erotic taboo in Soviet cinema, the naked body became almost the main way of audience attraction. However, the aesthetic tradition of nudity had not yet developed in Soviet cinema, as well as a spectator had not to experience in watching, evaluating and discussing erotic episodes in the cinema. As a result, a viewer used ‘Soviet’ optics of interpretation, relying on the educational discourse of Art and mimetic function of cinema.

Added: Jul 25, 2019
Article
Васильева А. В., Мингалев В. В., Перескоков М. Л. Вестник Пермского университета. Серия: История. 2018. № 1(40). С. 44-61.

The article analyzes the complexes of objects discovered during the 2015-2017 excavations in Mokino that can be interpreted as the remains of the settlement of the Glyadenovo culture preceding the construction of the cemetery. Two construction horizons were revealed, reflecting the stages of the settlement’s functioning. The building No. 2 belongs to the early horizon. During the late horizon (buildings No. 1 and No. 3), the orientation of the buildings has been changed. The structural elements and details of the buildings, reflecting the traditions of housebuilding, are revealed. The buildings from Mokino are considered in the context of the well-known buildings of the early Iron Age of Perm region. The closest analogies of the buildings are present at the Zarodyata settlement, which gives grounds for revising the dating of the monument and referring it to the Glyadenovo culture. It can be concluded that the construction of the dwelling of the “Zarodyata” type was not the development of the earlier “Fedotovо” type, but was used in parallel, even within the same village, and both were the development of the Ananyino housebuilding tradition. A statistical analysis of ceramics based on different methods mutually verifying each other is presented. As a result, clusters were identified reflecting the chronological features of the complexes, which are synchronized with the proposed periodization of materials from the finale of the Early Iron Age of Perm region.

Added: Apr 17, 2018