Об оптимальном использовании глаголов в академической письменной речи на английском языке
The article is concerned with English action verbs as key elements of academic English writing. Due to cognitive and semantic characteristics, verbs in the predicate function, by contrast with deverbative suffixal nouns and adjectives as parts of nominal predicates, convey the meaning of written message more concisely. The article is provided with verb classifications aimed at systematizing the information about verbs and developing a conscious approach to choosing verbs in the writing process. Syntactic transformation, limitation of passive voice forms, substitution of action verbs for stative verbs, adjectives and nouns entail perfecting L2 student writing skills.
Echiurida is a small group of marine benthic invertebrates that burrow in sediments and live a hidden lifestyle. Investigation of the morphology and anatomical features of various organ systems allows better understanding of the biology of these enigmatic animals, many of which are deep-sea species. The morphology and microscopic anatomy of the deep-sea echiurid Protobonellia zenkevitchi Murina, 1976 have been studied using the light microscopy and histology methods. The body of P. zenkevitchi is divided into a proboscis and trunk. The ciliary grooves and large vacuolated cells in the connective tissue of the distal part of the proboscis suggest a specific position of the proboscis on the sediment surface and a mechanism for sorting food particles. It has been shown for the first time that the coelom is not subdivided into compartments. In the digestive tract, an unusual part of the midgut has been found that was previously unknown in echiurids; it probably performs the function of food storage. This part contributes to thorough food digestion, which is important in the oligotrophic conditions of greater depths. The circulatory system of P. zenkevitchi lacks the neuro-intestinal and ring blood vessels. The oocyte storage chamber of the gonoduct has a pore, which apparently connects its cavity with the trunk coelom, but lacks a specialized and well-expressed part, the androecium. A comparative analysis of the microscopic anatomy shows that many organ systems (muscular, coelomic, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive) in P. zenkevitchi have a simpler organization compared to those in other echiurids. This can probably be explained by the small body size of P. zenkevitchi and the great depths of its habitat. At the same time, P. zenkevitchi possesses some unique anatomical characteristics related to the features of the biology of this deep-sea species.
The aim of this article is to examine the directionality of change in Voice in relation to Tense/Aspect, foremost based on evidence from Greek as well as additional evidence from Early Vedic. Starting with the hypothesis that in (standard) Proto-Indo-European a number of innovations resulted in the introduction of some elements of the Perfect-Stative inflection into the Present (cf. Kulikov & Lavidas 2013), we study the directionality of change in Voice. We show that the original relationship between Tense/Aspect and Voice determines the directionality of change in Voice in Greek. Basing our study on the analysis of Vedic active Perfects that are intransitive and belong with middle Presents, we claim that this initial relationship between Voice and Tense/Aspect can be reconstructed on the basis of some tendencies and changes found in several Indo-European dialects, in particular in Greek forms. We also argue that the relationship between Tense/Aspect and Voice in the diachrony of Greek depends on the new features acquired by the voice morphology as well as on the development of the categories Tense and Aspect.
The appeal of metric evaluation of research impact has attracted considerable interest in recent times. Although the public at large and administrative bodies are much interested in the idea, scientists and other researchers are much more cautious, insisting that metrics are but an auxiliary instrument to the qualitative peer-based judgement. The goal of this article is to propose availing of such a well positioned construct as domain taxonomy as a tool for directly assessing the scope and quality of research. We first show how taxonomies can be used to analyse the scope and perspectives of a set of research projects or papers. Then we proceed to define a research team or researcher’s rank by those nodes in the hierarchy that have been created or significantly transformed by the results of the researcher. An experimental test of the approach in the data analysis domain is described. Although the concept of taxonomy seems rather simplistic to describe all the richness of a research domain, its changes and use can be made transparent and subject to open discussions.
The article deals with the linguistic mechanism of functioning of verbal metonymy functioning in fictional discourse which is based on the functional categorization. In the metonymical using re-categorization of the verbs is taking place, that is, the change of their original system value. In some cases there is the actualization of the system categorial meaning while changing the values of the categorical boundaries of the situation denoted by the verb.
We define a most specific generalization of a fuzzy set of topics assigned to leaves of the rooted tree of a domain taxonomy. This generalization lifts the set to its “head subject” node in the higher ranks of the taxonomy tree. The head subject is supposed to “tightly” cover the query set, possibly bringing in some errors referred to as “gaps” and “offshoots”. Our method, ParGenFS, globally minimizes a penalty function combining the numbers of head subjects and gaps and offshoots, differently weighted. Two applications are considered: (1) analysis of tendencies of research in Data Science; (2) audience extending for programmatic targeted advertising online. The former involves a taxonomy of Data Science derived from the celebrated ACM Computing Classification System 2012. Based on a collection of research papers published by Springer 1998–2017, and applying in-house methods for text analysis
retrieval and clustering. The head subjects of these clusters inform us of some general tendencies of the research. The latter involves publicly available IAB Tech Lab Content Taxonomy. Each of about 25 mln users is assigned with a fuzzy profile within this taxonomy, which is generalized offline using ParGenFS. Our experiments show that these head subjects effectively extend the size of targeted audiences at least twice without loosing quality.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.