Understanding the role of the ethnic density effect: Issues of acculturation, discrimination, and social support.
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first generation) and were processed using latent profile analysis. We found three latent groups with differing acculturation profiles, largely resembling integration, assimilation, and separation. We found that a more positive orientation towards the host society (assimilation and integration) was associated with more socio-economic adaptation; moreover, the group with an assimilation profile was more adapted than the group with an integration profile. Also, the level of socio-economic adaptation was higher for immigrants who have stayed in the host country for more than five years.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
Nowadays, the NearNorth of Russia undergoes a fateful epoch. The processes of destruction of the old world order in economic, social and cultural relations is not only continuing, but increasing its pace. The omnipresent destruction is manifested through the depopulation of villages and small towns, further decline in agricultural production, "consolidation" (actually closing) of educational institutions and health care centers, and the degradation of infrastructure. The compressed social space of the Middle North of Russia is shrinking in concentric circles around the regional centers, increasing the vastness of social vacuum and the white space, with the latter being gradually occupied by the mutating natural forms. In addition, yet another (opposite) trend can be identified. It is associated with the escalation of migration amongst the dwellers of the large cities, especially megalopolises, to rural areas.
Extensive development of Russian cities, especially Moscow and St. Petersburg, has revealed serious social problems that had previously not been fully taken into account. In particular, the rapid escalation and exacerbation of social problems determine the quality of life in cities. From one perspective, Moscow and St. Petersburg are represented as thriving metropolises possessing a whole set of such social attractors as rich and comfortable residential buildings, shopping malls with international brands, best restaurants, medical facilities and other requisites of the upper classes. However, parallel to these features, the quality of life in metropolitan areas is determined by such parameters as the deteriorating environmental conditions, increase in street (and other types of) crime, unsolvable traffic conditions which reduce inner-city mobility to a minimum, and the decline of anti-terrorist security.
In the Middle North of Russia, especially in the Kostroma region, one particular trend became evident: there has been a transition from the seasonal migration to dachas towards the ‘settled’ migration related not only to the summer recreation, but also to the industrial activity in the framework of modern technologies. Specifically, modern forms of labor in the field of information technology were initially (and still remain to be) exterritorial in nature. Those working with data tend to be indifferent to the location of their job – what is important to them is a point of connection to the network and a portal for entry into hyperspace.
This book advances a social-ecological theory to reconnect nature and society through sustainable transformation of interacting social and ecological systems. Social ecology develops as an interdisciplinary science by using knowledge from the social sciences, especially sociology and economics, and from natural-scientific ecology. Knowledge integration across the boundaries of social and natural sciences is not widespread, blocked by the specialisation of theories and their competing forms of explanation and interpretation. Chapters in this book describe a new social-ecological theory that connects concepts and theories from both sides to create a new interdisciplinary theory. Inter- and transdisciplinary knowledge synthesis creates possibilities to analyse global environmental problems more systematically by integrating specialized research on environmental problems. The author uses social-ecological theory to analyse and explain problems and processes of global change in modern society such as climate change and adaptation to it, ecosystem change, and transformation of the industrial energy regime, finally offering pathways of transformation to a future sustainable society.
The article presents the results of study for the influence of acculturation profiles of immigrants, various length of stay in the host country on their level of socio-economic adaptation. The data obtained in the result of socio-psychological survey of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium were processed using cluster analysis, it was obtained by the three groups of immigrants with relevant acculturation profiles: integration, assimilation and separation. It was found that the orientation of the host society (assimilation and integration) has a positive influence on the socio-economic adaptation of immigrants, but the level of socio-economic of adaptation for immigrants with the assimilation profile is more higher than that for immigrants with the integration profile. Also, the level of socio-economic adaptation higher for those immigrants that have the length of stay in the host country more than 5 years.
This summary of the report describes the construction and testing of a theoretical model of the socio-economic adaptation (SEA) of immigrants, considering psychological factors as basic. In the analysis of previous studies, acculturation attitudes of immigrants were identified as key psychological factors of SEA for the construction of a theoretical model; the length of stay in the host country and language skills were used as control variables; ethnic and religious identification were used as predictors of acculturation attitudes.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.