Прокрастинация в структуре временных отношений личности
Discusses the study of psychology time using the actual in recent approaches and data about the study relatively little covered in scientific publications, problems of the phenomenon of procrastination and its psychological underpinnings. A quick overview of this phenomenon in historical perspective considered from the standpoint of foreign and domestic psychology. The publication reveals the nature of the phenomenon of procrastination, its types and structural organization.
The article discusses a new field of study of psychology of time through the prism of a very important but still little studied problem: procrastination as putting off work or activities in time. We present the chronology of studies of the phenomenon of procrastination in retrospect in foreign and Russian psychology. We also provide various definitions of the phenomenon of procrastination and reveal the nature and content of the new time mode from the perspective of behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic approaches and integrative theory of time motivation. The article highlights the main types of procrastination and procrastinators, describes the forms and components of procrastination, as well as its predictors and consequences. Basing on the existing research, we outline the theoretical framework of procrastination and specify its differences from the phenomenon of laziness and perfectionism. Further explorations of the phenomenon of procrastination can be aimed at identifying the consequences of procrastination, as in its negative impact on activity, as and its positive implications referring to self-efficacy and self-realization of the subject in a competitive environment.
The article describes the results of the development of the Russian version of the brief Big Five questionnaire (TIPI; n = 415) that measures Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness. We confirmed the factor structure of TIPI using confirmatory factor analysis, established its satisfactory psychometric properties, and validated the questionnaire against other questionnaires, including Khromov’s Big Five Questionnaire, Personality Factors of Decision Making, New Tolerance / Intolerance for Uncertainty Questionnaire, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Dark Dozen questionnaire. The results indicated that 4 out of 5 traits measured by TIPI are related to tolerance for uncertainty in ways convergent with those obtained for the original English-speaking sample. We also report the differential relationships between Big Five traits measured with TIPI, on one hand, and personality traits affecting self-regulation. We also established a set of relationships between TIPI and the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) that suggested that both Dark Dozen and TIPI can be used as complimentary in measuring personality traits. All Big Five traits with the exception of Agreeableness as measured by TIPI were positively related to the adaptive regulation of uncertainty acceptance, measured as Vigilance using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.