Quantum size effect in single-crystalline bismuth nanorods
In a metal sample, where at least one of the dimensions is comparable with the de Broglie wavelength of conduction electrons, the quantum size effects (QSE) should be observed. QSEs manifest themselves as non-monotonic dependencies of various material properties as function of relevant dimension. QSE should be particularly noticeable in materials with charge carrier(s) effective mass less than the free electron mass. Bismuth is one of the most suitable semi-metal to observe QSE due to small effective masses and small the Fermi energy. However, bismuth has a high anisotropic energy spectrum. Hence to observe QSE which can be interpreted with reasonable accuracy, it is mandatory to fabricate single-crystal nanostructure with known orientation of crystallographic axes. In this paper several short bismuth nanowires (nanorods) were investigated, and oscillating dependence of electric resistance on effective cross section was found. Theoretical calculations provide a reasonable agreement with experiment. The quantum-size phenomena are important for operation of a wide spectrum of nanolelectronic devices.