Неизвестные письма Франсиско де Миранды из Национальной библиотеки Шотландии
The article presents newly discovered eight letters from the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda (1750–1816) to the Governor of Trinidad in 1804–1811 Thomas Hislop (1764–1843), dated from September 3, 1807, to January 4, 1811. The author made this discovery in October 2015, in the manuscript division of the National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh).
Based on rich and diverse sources, including the U.S. archives, the article researches the place of the United States of America in life and revolutionary projects of the Precursor of the Spanish American independence Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816). It is argued that the circle of Miranda's friends and supporters in the United States was Federalist in spirit - contrary to a widely held notion that foreign revolutions drew support from the Jeffersonian National Republican milieu. The article analyses the 1797/1799 plan of the Anglo-American union against France and Spain in the name of the Spanish American independence and the annexation of Louisiana and Florida by the United States. This plan was elaborated by Miranda and supported by Alexander Hamilton. The precise date of one of Miranda's constitutional projects is clarified (1797, not 1798). For the first time in world historiography the article reconstructs the New York draft of soldiers for the Miranda's Venezuela expedition of 1806. The history of this expedition is also reconstructed in details.
The article is devoted to the disintegration of the Spanish Empire - the revolution in its American lands, and the Madrid reaction to the independence of Spanish America.
The article deals with three constitutional projects of Francisco de Miranda, distinguished Venezuelan. It is devoted to analyzes of the characteristics of the project of 1798, based on the experience of British constitutional law and public law of Ancient Rome. Special attention is focused on provisions of the projects of 1801 and 1808: on temporary public power during the war of colonies for independence from Spain and on federal government after the liberation. F.Miranda used for these projects a constitutional experience of many countries. One of the sources of his intellectual reflection was the constitution of Ancient Rome, the most important elements of which were people`s assembleis and magistracy. These institutes were adopted by F.Miranda and creatively impleamented according to specific conditions of Ibero-America.
The article proves that the so called Acta de Paris (December 22, 1797) adopted by the Junta de Diputados de los pueblos y provincias de América Meridional which presented a plan of Spanish American independence with the support of Great Britain and United States was in fact fully written by one man, Francisco de Miranda (1750–1816) who needed an image of non-existent revolutionary network as an argument in negotiations with the British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger (1759–1806) because he counted upon his aid.