In the article the author considers the crisis in history of the domestic African studies, occurred on a boundary of 1950-1960, and designates the major directions of its development for the following half a century.
The article presents the path in science of the prominent Polish historian Jerzy W. Borejsza (1935–2019). He made a significant contribution to the study of the history of nineteenth-century Poland, especially Polish political emigration, as well as the totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century, primarily the links of Italian fascism and German nazism with Eastern Europe and Slavs. The historian actively participated in international cooperation – the article focuses on his contacts with Russian colleagues. The portrait of J. Borejsza is given in the broad context of the history of humanities and political history of the second half of the XXth and early XXIst centuries. The author analyzes Borejsza's views on a number of topical issues, including his assessment of historical policy. Along with the use of research works of the historian, his recently published reminiscences and interviews are introduced into circulation, which the author of the article complements with his own memories of J. Borejsza.
The article studies the case of Japan as a part of a series of cultural interactions. The Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier was the first to introduce Chistianity into Japan. Rivaling with the Jesuits, the Spanish Augustinians and Franciscans came to Japan. It was the age when the first contacts between two countries were established, and the image of Japan was created by the European missionaries.