El Mercado de esclavos en la región del Mar Negro, siglos XIV y XV
Crimea, Caucasus, and the Black Sea region in general became in the fourteenth – fifteenth centuries a major slave-exporting area that supplied Europe. The Italian colonies, mainly those in Caffa and Tana, were the transit points of this involuntary circulation of people. The Genoese of Caffa were large-scale slave traders, acting both on their own and through middlemen, effectively becoming the monopolists on the slave market, bringing captives to the Western Europe, the urban centres of Balkans and Asia Minor, and Mameluck Egypt. This circulation of people shaped the mixed, entangled, and multicultural societies of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were a period of changes of the sources of slave supply, which shifted from the Caucasus to Eastern Europe (the Golden Horde, the Russian lands, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). Some cases of enslavement of people, their further circulation, liberation, integration in the Italian societies provides enlightening insights on the nature and operation of this trade within the Italian colonial environment.
The book focuses on the network of the Genoese colonies in the Black Sea area and their diverse multi-ethnic societies. The Genoese colonies in Crimea existed during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and attracted a broad variety of immigrants from the Mediterranean.
This article reviews the institutional economics researches of slavery and serfdom. The exploration of the comparative institutional advantages and disadvantages of forced labor enriches various historical studies. On the example of the Great Princedom of Moscow, author considers reasons for establishment of the serfdom and how it affected the distribution of welfare.
This article deals with the urgent legislative and criminological issues of combating trafficking of human beings. The author analyzes principal trends in slavery legislation, transformation of slavery from legal economic activity to criminal activity, and also gives a brief overview of slavery and trafficking of human beings as a social phenomenon. Main subjects of the article are Russian legislature on trafficking of human beings, its issues and drafting, comparison of the Russian criminal law on trafficking of human beings (art. 1271, 1272 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation) with corresponding propositions of the civil law of the Russian Federation (sale-purchase, permutation etc.). In the final part the article gives examples of actual legal norms, taken from legislature of the countries, leading in the process of combating trafficking of human beings (such as USA and countries of the European Union), and describes the current condition of the Russian legislature on trafficking of human beings and its expected efficiency.
Entro la metà del XIII secolo l'Europa medievale raggiunse un certo successo nell’approvazione del sistema repubblicano, nell'espansione del commercio mondiale, e nella transizione verso un'economia di mercato. Nei secoli XIII – XV si verificò l'espansione del commercio europeo con l'Oriente nella regione del Mar Nero, lo sviluppo di nuove rotte commerciali e la nascita delle colonie italiane nel Levante e sul Mar Nero. La stabilità portata dalla conquista mongola ebbe un impatto positivo sul commercio a lunga distanza, sopratutto nella regione del Mar Nero. La tipologia di merci esportate dalle rive del Mar Nero e dal Mar d'Azov era abbastanza ampia. L’intero commercio della regione era sotto lo stretto controllo dell’amministrazione delle colonie. I mercanti italiani si stabilirono nella regione settentrionale del Mar Nero perché i Khan dell'Orda d'Oro erano ben consapevoli dell'importanza del commercio internazionale nel loro territorio per il loro stato, e del grande e costante flusso di denaro nelle loro casse, proveniente dalla riscossione delle imposte di negoziazione. Caffa era il centro delle colonie genovesi. La redditività del commercio causò la migrazione latino-cristiana in Crimea. L’evoluzione e la trasformazione di questa migrazione è il tema del presente articolo.
The article is based on field evidence collected in seven states in 2013–2015. It shows how differences in the historic memory of African Americans and African migrants influence their mutual perceptions and relationship. Both groups ’collective memory and mass consciousness of the transatlantic slave trade is most important in this respect. The slave trade is the event that gave rise to the very phenomenon of Black Americans and to the problem of the “Black world” and its historical unity. This article argues that the historic memory of the slave trade, slavery, and the fight against it is of key importance to African Americans’ historic consciousness. This memory is also important to Africans; however, not to the same degree. Secondly, Africans see the slave trade differently, not as a history not of Blacks’ betrayal by other Blacks, but of exploitation of the Blacks by the Whites. Significant differences in the perception, estimation, and importance attached to the slave trade, slavery and anti-slavery struggle separate these two groups of the Black population rather than unite them in the face of “White” America. The lack of the sense of historic unity alienates African Americans and African migrants from each other spiritually and mentally, thus contributing to the establishment of an ambiguous and complicated relationship between them.
The paper discusses essential features of memorial commemoration of the Civil War of 1861–1865 and Emancipation in the USA in the late 19th – early 21st centuries in monuments, cemeteries, museums, etc. The author shows how the differences in memorial representations of these key events in the nation’s history manifest dynamic but persisting to this day discrepancies in the historical memory of them in the US North and South.
The article highlights the results of field research conducted in Tanzania in August-September 2018, focused on historical memory about Arab slave trade in East Africa and Indian Ocean in the 19-th century and its influence on modern-day interethnic relations in the country.