Endogenous growth and demographic transition in a model of cultural transmission
Demographic transition theory is developed highlighting cultural transmission pattern as a key driver. Individuals maximize cultural fitness, i.e. the rate of own cultural type absorption by future generations. With low population density, one’s culture can be picked up only by own children, and so cultural fitness equals genetic fitness, individuals allocate all energy surplus to reproduction, and the Malthusian regime occurs. With rising population density, cultural transmission between non-relatives accelerates; knowledge production by an individual makes his culture more attractive. Individuals reallocate some of energy surplus from reproduction to knowledge production, causing technological growth. The model fits observed demographic transition patterns.
The article analyzes norms of spousal and parental behavior represented in Russian family law and contrasts them with the meanings young people invest in partnership, matrimony, and parenthood. Federal legislation and interviews with young middle-class residents of Saint Petersburg serve to explore similarities and differences between official discourse and young people's everyday views of their obligations and freedoms. The article discusses the applicability of the concept of a second demographic transition to gender relations in Russia. The subjects of the Russian demographic shift are young adults who, official discourse notwithstanding, base their reproductive decisions on professional, social, and economic status rather than age.
By means of simple AN-model of economic growth and stepwise refinement of technical progress (A), modelling of two-century transition process to Great |Divergence (nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century), then—from Divergence to Convergence (second half of the twentieth century), and at last, to the acceleration of convergence in the early twenty-first century. The forecast, calculated after this model reveals that Great Convergence will occur by 2050 and the world center of production of goods and services will shift again to China, India and other Asian countries, like it was in pre-industrial era.
The author shows that demographic transition is an organic part of civilization developments. Such phenomen as death rate and birth rate, changes in character of migration are connected with stages of development of a civilization.
The twenty-seven volume of the series "International Migration of Population: Russia and Contemporary World" is a collection of papers submitted to the Session 06-03 "The effects of migration on areas of destination" of the XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference *26031 August 2013, South Korea, Busan). The session deals with major international migration trends, increasing role of international migration in the demographic development of receiving countries.
The authors are responsible for the reliability of data and other materials used. The series is both of scientific and educational character and can be accordingly used in teaching process.
This paper analyses an extended version of creative destruction model with strategic complimentarity between R&D investment of firms and education investment of households [Aghion, Howitt, 1992; 2005]. The new assumption is that the probability of innovation in the productive sector is determined endogenously because it depends on the level of human capital in the economy. This model provides a framework to explain the coexistence of two long-run equilibria: zero growth equilibrium and sustainable positive growth equilibrium transition as well as the transition from zero growth to high-growth equilibrium. The model provides explanation for a convergence club phenomenon: some developing countries experience the absence of growth during the years, while others are characterized by catching-up process to the income level of developed countries.
The article gives a developed criticism of representations that in advanced countries there were steady changes in dynamics of birth rate. This contradicts theories of demographic transition. The author polemizes with the arguments of M. Kluptas article published in same number.