«Под ближайшим руководством резидентства...» Временное правительство, Бухарский эмират и Хивинское ханство
Article devoted to analysis the role and significance of Tatar-born Russian officials in gathering information about state and law of the Central Asian khanates – Bukhara, Khiva, Khoqand in the 18th-19th cc. on the examples of M.Bekchurin, M.Aitov and I.Batyrshin. All of them served as officials of the Orenburg Frontier Commission, two of them were diplomats in Bukhara and Khiva, last one contacted with informers from abovementioned khanates. The common feature for them was that they were Turks and Moslems. Firstly that fact provided Central Asian population’s sympathies to them (including favor of representatives of the ruling elites of the khanates) and gave an opportunity to gather more useful information. Secondly, as representatives of the Turkic-Islamic culture they could better understand and estimate the level of political and legal development of the Central Asian khanates and prepare impartial reports for their chiefs. Also it’s necessary to notice that their affiliation with Turkic-Islamic world didn’t influence on quality of fulfillment of missions by such officials: they tried all ways to contribute to realization of the Russian policy in the Central Asia and advance of the Russian Empire in this region.
The article reveals the characteristic of the court at the Russian Political Agency in Bukhara Emirate, its normative legal status and functions and its role in the process of modernization in the outskirts (“frontier” modernization) of the Russian Empire. Are analyzed official normative legal acts as well as contemporaries evidences by Russian imperial officials and foreigners who visited Bukhara.
Article devoted to analysis of council (divan) which acted in the Khivan Khanate in the summer of 1873 dur-ing the staying of Russian troops there. This council became the first step on the way of establishing the protectorate of the Russian Empire over Khiva. The legal status of council is characterized, its activity is evaluated. The parallels with organizing of power of European colonial empires in dependent states are drawn.