The Principle of Individuation in Contra Eunomium 2, 4 by Basil of Caesarea and Its Philosophical and Theological Context
The article analyzes the context of describing the human being through the “concurrence of properties” in the Contra Eunomnium 2.4 of Basil of Caesarea, and traces the links of this topic in Basil with the theories of individuation, current in Antiquity. The continuity of Basil’s teaching of the concurrence in the analyzed passage with the On Prayer, 24 of Origen, which reveals some Stoic connotations, is examined. At the same time the article points to the difference between Basil’s and Origen’s conceptual frameworks. Two paradigms of understanding the material substratum in Basil – Platonic and Stoic – are identified. The article demonstrates the direct Stoic influence on the analyzed passage of Basil and specifies what it consisted of and why exactly Basil used the Stoic paradigm. Then, based on the place from the Apology of Eunomius, which Basil was refuting in his passage, the article reveals both the context of the passage and of the place in Eunomius in a wider setting of the doctrines of language elaborated in Antiquity.
The article represents the results of the analysis of different types of perception, its indexes of key properties and indexes of its efficiency. It has been shown that in perception the subjective image of an outer world is closely related to subject’s motivation and experience. A new approach is offered to understand the thought as a need-emotion-intentional instance. Based on that approach it is shown that the image is also a substance of thoughts. In keeping with this premise the transformation of the image-substance is exposed and the understanding of a word as its transformation to subjective image-substance. The relationship between the image and word is discussed in cultural and historical aspects. The science is analyzed as symbolic description of realm where the image and word are related to each other by thought.
The relation between the thought, image and word is addressed to discussion. The role of psychic functions in thought generation and the structure of thought and image are revealed. It is found that the thinking is the process of thoughts’ generation and their usage in task-solving. In keeping with this premise the mind is characterized by the ability of thought generation. Thus, the new ways in mind and intelligence diagnostics would be prospectively defined
The methodological challenge is the question whether and with which qualifications something like the concept „Self“ may be attributed to ancient philosophers. The problem “What is man” was discovered by the Ancient Greek culture quite early. For example, at the epoch of Homer, the word autos means in the self-referent speech the body, soma – something that is different from other bodies (existing things) and constitutes one’s selfhood. Plato was the first philosopher who posed the question on the „same“, the true nature of man irrelative to his material substratum. Thus, we can see in Plato the nascency of the notion that the true nature of man conceived as a priori determined mode of being of the soul has transcendental roots. His soul theory can be consequently seen as the first draft of later theories of self-knowledge and the nature of human Self.
The article represents author’s recollection of his discussions with Vladimir Petrovich Zinchenko about the issues of psychology of thought. The objects of discussion are considered by approaching to think about such questions as ‘What the thought is?’ and ‘How does the thought relate to word in G.G. Shpet’s and L.S. Vigotsky’s understanding?’. Zinchenko’s and author’s point of views on given issues are represented. By citing V.P. Zinchenko’s works it is shown the width and profoundness of his consideration for those issues, the witticism of his polemic language, freedom and independence of his thinking.
The author analyses a number of conceptions that determine self-identification as dependent from self-reference and self-ascription and shows that the conceptions allows to explain the possibility of a formal but not a real basis of self-identity.
This paper is concerned with the evolution of the concept “subject” in the ancient Greek philosophy in comparison with Aristotle’s ontological concept of hypokeimenon. Hypokeimenonis understood not only in the grammatic and logic sense but also as substantional base or form, matter and individuum (prote ousia). In his identification of hypokeimenon and proteousia Aristotle gives understanding of the subject as independently existing substance andsets the foundation of the later anthropological interpretation of the self-identical person.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.