Рецензия: М. Б. Бессуднова. Россия и Ливония в конце XV века. Истоки конфликта. М., "Квадрига", 2015, 488 с.
M. B. Bessudnova's book devoted to Russian-Livonian relations of the end of the 15th century is a large research, based on a great massive of sources, demonstrating new, unusual for Russian historiography view on this episode of the Baltic region's history. Author's monograph, devoted to Livonia and Novgorod before military showdown with the Great Principality of Moscow in 1501, continues series of scholar's works in the field of Russian-Livonian fron-tier's study. A few massive of documents are putted into academic practice for the first time; it is seen obvious careen of scholar to the history of “German” Baltic. However the author solves important generalized questions, concerning Russian
The Treaty of Stolbovo (1617) was only the first step in making peace between Sweden and Muscovy at the end of the Time of Troubles. The delimitation process ended only in August 1621. This article describes the circumstances of the first stage of delimitation in Ingria in 1617-1618 that occurred at the same time that the "Lithuanian" menace directly threatened Moscow itself. Old residents, mostly local peasants, supported both the Swedish and Russian delimitation commissions. The result of that delimitation was a clear and transparent borderline that existed for more than eighty years. © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2015.
The article describe the amount and the archive fate of “Porubezhbye Acty” collection in the Research Archives in St. Petersburg Institute for History. The collection is the remains of “the archives of the Ambassador Department,, Novgorod Goverbor’s Chamber, 17th century. The collection includes documents connected with the bordercrossing of 17th century embassies, with making the guarded borderline in 1629-1630, with foreign military recruiting in 1630s, with the conversations on the repatriation of prisoners and deserters. In 18th century the archives was discovered and taken to the Academy of Sciences but then it was forgotten and rediscovered only in 20th century
The book is a study of Russian-Swedish borderland in 17th centuryy, shaped after 1617. The main source of the research is the collection "Borderland ACts" from Research ARchive in St.Petersburg Institute for Russian History other archival collections from Russian and Swedish archives are also used in the study. The history of borderland shaping is studied in the comparative context of political and cultural history of Eastern Baltic area in 13-17th cc. Changes in infrastructure, day-to-day life and specific borderland culture are also under consideration
The article is devoted to the city pair of Blagoveshchensk (Russia) and Heihe (People’s Republic of China), the only city pair in Russian-Chinese borderland that describes itself with the term “twin-cities”. The current contribution reconstructs the history of appearance of the twin-cities concept in Russian-Chinese agenda. On the basis of interviews and questionnaires collected in the cities in question the paper examines specificity of understanding of “twin-cities” concept and its practical execution in the Asian context. Exploring the extent to which the twin-cities relations model is applicable to Russian-Chinese border cities, the author concludes that cooperation predominantly exists in a form of bilateral annual events in various spheres (culture, education, sport, etc.) and dialog between delegations of region’s/city’s representatives, not in a form of direct people-to-people or institution-to-institution cooperation. The lack of local initiatives to cooperate (almost zero-amount of initiatives not from region’s/city’s administrations) is named as a main drawback of Blagoveshchensk and Heihe relations. While planned character of cooperation makes the calendar of joint events stable and predictable, it also keeps Russian-Chinese cooperation staying on the ritual level and prevents it to become a necessary part of everyday life.
Nikolai Poppel’s second visit to Moscow in 1489 and the unexpected proposals that he addressed to Grand Duke Ivan III encouraged the Moscow court to examine the political structure of the Holy Roman Empire. This required the help of an unknown expert, who, however, was not always accurate in his comments. To legitimize the Moscow ruler in the eyes of the German emperor, a theory was elaborated about the primordial «brotherhood» between the Moscow dynasty and the Roman-Byzantine emperors. The crucial point in it, along with some «historical» dates from the Donation of Constantine, took the marriage of John VIII Palaiologos to the princess Anna Vasilievna of Moscow.
The book is a collection of essays based on a conference on honor of Professor Nancy Shields Kollmann that took place at Stanford University in October, 2015.
1. Early Modern Russian-Lithuanian Borderland is good studied. Its trace is the best investigated one among the borderlines of Muscovia. The case of the Russian–Lithuanian borderline was the basis of important theoretical reconstruction (by M. Krom and also A. Frolov) in the sphere of the appearance of borders as signs of Early Modern states. In the same time the gradually annexation of border Porechje and Schuchje districts by Lithuanians in 1609 was very similar to the processes in Gomel’-Starodub borderland happened a century earlier (been studied by V. Temushev).
2. The Smolensk Chancellery Archives is one of “divided archives” like Novgorod Ockupationsarkivet and Tikhvin arkivet (other two collections from Muscovia gathered in Swedish National Archives). The Smolensk collection like the Novgorod one is the random sampling of local regular day-to-day documentation unknown in the local chancelleries of other Muscovite towns
3. The “Smolensk collection” is the day-to-day acts from the sieged (since august 1609) city but it also includes acts from the time immediately before the siege. The documents on the borderline guarding and border transfer in spring and summer 1609 are under consideration; also the documents of the first weeks after king Sigismund III coming up to Smolensk. The borderline deeds include the correspondence between Smolensk governors and border officers, acts of building the fortifications, also notes from Lithuania. The reports from the border were of syncretic character: local inhabitants immediately complained about violence from the Lithuanian authorities who had supposed them to be spies and informed the Smolensk authorities about Lithuanian troops moving.
4. The clashes on Velizh border started in March 1609 were not an immediate reaction of Lithuanians on the Muscovite-Swedish alliance. The documents described it like a set of border attacks ordinary for 15-17th century borderland. Mutual prosecutions in treachery proclaimed by court peasants, oath to “Velizh pan” made those peasants firstly traitors, then – “Lithuanians”. Not only brothers Gosiewskis but also Muscovite traitors Khripunovs were the initiators of that borderland war.
In 1609 in Smolensk chancellery documents new concepts appeared, characteristic for the Time of Troubles. The concepts “betray”, “deserters” belong to the image of “the own” like “the other” appeared during the Civil war of 17th century: in the discourse of acts, in political and social senses.