Слияние и идентификация с социальной группой как различные механизмы формирования идентичности
Paper is devoted to the differentiation of the two variants of social identity - identification (in self-categorization theory) and identity fusion (in self-verification theory). In accordance with the self-regulation of body processes approach to identity, both variants are consequences of different mechanisms of identity formation, equally providing a person with the experience of self-identity and control as the general basis of the identity. In a study of identification and identity fusion with the country and family on samples of students (n1 = 161) and adults (n2 = 123) we confirmed the structural and partly (for the family only) functional differences between these constructs. Both identity fusion and identification with a group are equally associated with indicators of self-identity - subjective proximity of group to "Self" and severity of negative reaction to the change of social identity, including change for better. The results are discussed from the perspective of the possible mechanisms behind the two different variants of identity formation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.