On the methodology of institutional studies (To the 80th anniversary of Ronald Coase's "Nature of the Firm)
The paper describes the institutional organization of the resource type regions. The advantages of the political and economic approach based on structural alternatives of development identification are justified. The choice between those alternatives is decided by dominant political and economic actors’ interactions, motivations and limitations of the actors are regarded in the context of path dependence and lock-in effects. Different configurations of those actors’ interactions can both strengthen and weaken resource dependence. The results of the resource type regions development in 2005-2015 are regarded bearing in mind the structural shift effects. The authors show that emerging due to structural shift effects cannot be explained without involving institutional factors that determine the degree to which the regional economy operated as an integral unit or as a set of enclaves in its social and economic development.
This study analyzes the incentives for process innovations under different conditions determined by the competition policy for intellectual property rights (IPR) and particular features of markets and technologies. Competition policy is defined by the presence or absence of compulsory licensing, markets are characterized by technological leadership or technological competition. The results of modelling show that the uncertainty engendered by technological competition may lower the intensity of innovative activities, if there are no mechanisms of coordination between participants. Voluntary licensing generally improves social welfare but does not guarantee an increase in innovative efforts. Compulsory licensing can impede innovations due to the opportunistic behaviour of market participants but certain measures of state policy can prevent this negative effect.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.