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## A counterexample on outer inverses in semigroups

We construct a counterexample to the following conjecture, which was proposed recently by Bapat et al. ‘If *a* is a regular element in a semigroup *S*, and *x* is an outer inverse of *a*, then *a* has a reflexive generalized inverse *y* which dominates *x* with respect to the minus order on *S*.’

For all spherical homogeneous spaces G/H, where G is a simply connected semisimple algebraic group and H a connected solvable subgroup of G, we compute the spectra of representations of G on spaces of regular sections of homogeneous line bundles over G/H.

We present an efficient equivalence-checking algorithm for a propositional model of programs with semantics based on (what we call) progressive monoids on the finite set of statements generated by relations of a specific form. We consider arbitrary set of relations for commutativity (relations of the form ab=ba for statements a, b) and left absorption (relations of the form ab=b for statements a, b) properties. The main results are a polynomial-time decidability for the equivalence problem in the considered case, and an explicit description of an equivalence-checking algorithm which terminates in time polynomial in size of programs.

We discuss the recurrence property, based on the representation of trajectories of the semigroup as realizations of a certain Markov chain for which necessary and sufficient conditions for the recurrence were obtained recently in [Blank2019]. Remark that a direct generalization of the recurrence property does not work well in the case of the semigroup action and one needs to make proper corrections which is discussed in detail. Examples of semigroups for which each generator is recurrent a.e., but the corresponding semigroup has no strictly recurrent points; as well the opposite case when each generator has no recurrent points, but the semigroup is strictly recurrent everywhere, are presented.

The textbook contains necessary information about universal and classical algebras, systems of axioms for the basic algebraic structures (groupoid, monoid, semi-groups, groups, partial orders, rings, fields). The basic cryptographic algorithms are described. Error-correcting codes - linear, cyclic, BCH are considered. Algorithms for designing of such codes are given. Many examples are shown. It is put in a basis of the book long-term experience of teaching by authors the discipline «Discrete mathematics» at the business informatics faculty, at the computer science faculty of National research university Higher school of economics, and at the automatics and computer technique faculty of National research university Moscow power engineering institute. The book is intended for the students of a bachelor degree, trained at the computer science faculties in the directions 09.03.01 Informatics and computational technique, 09.03.02 Informational systems and technologies, 09.03.03 Applied informatics, 09.03.04 Software Engineering, and also for IT experts and developers of software products.

It is shown how the verification of the equivalence of two-tape deterministic automata can be reduced to the problem of checking the equivalence of weakly nondeterministic finite automata-transformers working on the semigroup of prefix regular languages with the concatenation operation.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.