Инфинитив и сослагательное наклонение в косвенной речи в русских летописях XI–XVI вв.
The paper considers the use of infinitives and subjunctive forms as modal patterns of indirect speech attested in Russian Chronicles of the XI—XVI centuries. In early texts, an infinitive in a subordinate clause describes either a speech act that must be put into practice or a situation destined to happen. Subjunctive forms are used only in citations containing requests. The illocutionary power of reported speech is regularly marked with an illocutionary verb. In later chronicles, infinitive clauses and subjunctive forms begin to alternate in modal patterns of indirect speech containing official orders. However, the modal patterns are not yet attested as a substitute of imperative mood in subordinate clauses.
The history of the development of Infinitive and Gerund consists in continuous process of likening to Verb though they appeared in language as nominal units. Infinitive and Gerund convey a generalized idea of action, and the connection with the doer of action is supported only logically, but isn't expressed by formal means. Infinitive and Gerund have verbal and nominal features. Verbal features are manifested by the categories of tense and aspect, ability to accept a non-prepositional object and to be defined by adverbial modifiers. Nominal lines are manifested in their syntactic functions.
The main formal sign of Gerund is its ability to be used with prepositions. The main formal sign of Infinitive is particle to. Syntactically Infinitive gravitates to Verb, though keeps the properties of nonverbal parts of speech. The gerund, on the contrary, expands the positions of nonverbal parts of speech, but still gravitates to Verb. Nevertheless, Gerund has more properties of Noun, than Infinitive.
Since 2000, the frequency of use of Gerund has grown, and it is more frequently used in functions of adverbial modifiers, object and attribute. Infinitive tends to be more rare used in functions of adverbial modifiers and subject, yielding these positions to Gerund.
Though the Russian infinitive is a non-finite form, it is frequently used independently, with or without the subjunctive particle by. This paper is an attempt to answer the question whether independent infinitival constructions should be considered as a result of insubordination (the term by Nicholas Evans). Basing on the data from Russian National Corpus, two semantic types of infinitival constructions are isolated. One may be referred to as evaluative infinitive (Emu by ostat'sja odnomu ‘It’s better if he stays alone’). The second construction may be called counterfactual non-evaluative infinitive (Ne minovat' by emu tjur'my, no pomogli rodstvenniki ‘He had all chances to go to prison, but his relatives helped him out’). Comparing these constructions with infinitival conditional clauses shows that the evaluative infinitive is a result of insubordination of the protasis of conditional clause, while the semantics of the non-evaluative counterfactual infinitive is a simple sum of the meanings of the infinitive and subjunctive categories.
The book is dedicated to the language of early Church Slavonic manuscripts of South and East Slavic provenance and dated back to the 11th - 14th centuries.
Since the issue of intertextuality was introduced, it has been hotly debated and employed by professionals in various disciplines time and again. In media discourse reporters widely use this powerful tool for suiting their own purposes. At writers’ disposal, reported speech as one of the most common forms of intertextuality allows gaining readers’ confidence, interpreting information subjectively or even detaching from what is said. It is claimed that the writers’ pursued effect is achieved not only through the content of the reported speech itself but also through a correctly chosen reporting verb. The present research targets at the comparative analysis of reporting verbs introducing direct and indirect speech and focuses on the peculiarities of the latter ones, subjecting to conscious scrutiny their illocutionary forces. In order to account for the impact of these verbs the semantic analysis is carried out, which results in the identification of their lexical presupposition and their classification. The findings suggest that in media discourse the choice of reporting verbs discloses the narrator’s perspective, elucidating the point of view of the person quoting instead of the quoted one. The research outcomes reveal semantic peculiarities of verbs used to refer to the ideas of other writers and researchers and therefore assist people in academic reading and writing.
The book contains a collection of articles dedicated to problems of the history of Russian and Church Slavonic language.
The article is dedicated to the loanword tagash as attested in Russian historical lexicography and etymology, and its paronimical attraction with the Turkic word tugash. The open access to the text cannot be provided due to copyright restrictions.
The article is dedicated to the linguistic and textual pecularities of the Festal Menaion F p I 37 preserved in Russian National Library (S.-Petersburg) and dated to the beginning of the 13th c. Numerous linguistic features of the manuscript testify to Old West Bulgarian (Old Macedionan) literary usage of the end of the 9th — beginning of the 10th c., on the basis of which the earliest Slavonic hymnographical translations were performed. Despite of such an archaic linguistic and textual layers observed in the manuscript, its calendar, structure and content were influenced by the monastic rite based on Typicon of Patriarch Alexius the Studite which had been translated and introduced in Kievan Rus’ at the second half of the 11th c. The linguistic features of the text version as attested by F p I 37 have been compared to the manuscripts testifying to the Alexius the Studite text version par excellence. It has been affirmed that adaptation of the Old Bulgarian hymnographic heritage in Kievan Rus’ followed the unstable trend to neglect the most remarkable South (and South West) Slavonic lingustic features and aimed at establishing “neutral” over dialectal early Church Slavonic literary usage.
The significant part of the article contains the edition of the earliest Slavonic, i. e. Old Bulgarian, translation of the Greek kanon Τάφῳ παρθενοδόχῳ dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos. The earliest Slavonic translation has been preserved in the unique available manuscript, that is F p I 37. The publication of the Slavonic translation is supplied with the first critical edition of the Greek source performed on the basis of twelve manuscripts, the linguistic commentary of the Slavonic text, and remarks concerning some metric pecularities of the original Greek version.
The manual contains a collection of exercises for practising subjunctive mood compiled from grammar books by eminent Russian grammarians.
The article is dedicated to the text critical investigation of the Troparion for the Translation of the Holy Mandylion from Edessa to Constantinople
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.