Majorana representation for dissipative spin systems
The Majorana representation of spin operators allows for efficient field-theoretical description of spin-spin correlation functions. Any N-point spin correlation function is equivalent to a 2N-point correlator of Majorana fermions. For a certain class of N-point spin correlation functions (including "auto" and "pair-wise" correlations) a further simplification is possible, as they can be reduced to N-point Majorana correlators. As a specific example we study the Bose-Kondo model. We develop a path-integral technique and obtain the spin relaxation rate from a saddle point solution of the theory. Furthermore, we show that fluctuations around the saddle point do not affect the correlation functions as long as the latter involve only a single spin projection. For illustration we calculate the 4-point spin correlation function corresponding to the noise of susceptibility.
We study low-lying electron levels in an “antidot” capturing a coreless vortex on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator in the presence of disorder. The surface is covered with a superconductor film with a hole of size R larger than coherence length, which induces superconductivity via proximity effect. Spectrum of electron states inside the hole is sensitive to disorder, however, topological properties of the system give rise to a robust Majorana bound state at zero energy. We calculate the subgap density of states with both energy and spatial resolution using the supersymmetric σ model method. We identify the presence of the Majorana fermion with symmetry class B. Tunneling into the hole region is sensitive to the Majorana level and exhibits resonant Andreev reflection at zero energy.
We propose a setup involving Majorana bound states (MBS) hosted by a vortex on a superconducting surface of a 3D topological insulator (TI). We consider a narrow channel drilled across a TI slab with both sides covered by s-wave superconductor. In the presence of a vortex pinned to such a channel, it acts as a ballistic nanowire connecting the superconducting surfaces, with a pair of MBS localized in it. The energies of the MBS possess a 4π-periodic dependence on the superconductive phase difference φ between the surfaces. It results in the appearance of an anomalous term in the current-phase relation Ia(φ) for the supercurrent flowing along the channel between the superconductive surfaces. We have calculated the shape of the 4π-periodic function Ia(φ), as well as the dependence of its amplitude on temperature and system parameters.
We study tunneling spectroscopy of subgap Andreev states in a superconducting system and discuss the general situation when the discrete nature of these levels is relevant and thus the standard semiclassical result for tunneling conductance being proportional to the density of states is not applicable. If the tunneling coupling is weak, individual levels are resolved and the conductance G(V) at low temperatures is composed of a set of resonant Lorentz peaks which cannot be described within perturbation theory over tunneling strength. We establish a general formula for the peak widths and heights and show that the width of any peak scales as normal-state tunnel conductance, while its height is 2e2 h−1 and depends only on contact geometry and the spatial profile of the resonant Andreev level. We also establish an exact formula for the single-channel conductance that takes the whole Andreev spectrum into account, and use it to study the interference of Andreev reflection processes through different levels. We study tunneling conductance at finite bias G(eV >0) for a system with a pair of almost decoupled Majorana fermions and derive the conditions for the 'universal' zero-bias peak with the height 2e2/h to be observed in a realistic system which always hosts an even number of Majorana fermions.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.