Using Majorana spin-1/2 representation for the spin-boson model
The Majorana representation for spin operators enables efficient application of field-theoretical methods for the analysis of spin dynamics. Moreover, a wide class of spin correlation functions can be reduced to Majorana correlations of the same order, simplifying their calculation. For the spin-boson model, direct application of this method in the lowest order allows for a straightforward computation of the transverse-spin correlations, however, for the longitudinal-spin correlations it apparently fails in the long-time limit. Here we indicate the reason and discuss, how this method can be used as a convenient and accurate tool for generic spin correlations. Specifically, we demonstrate that accurate results are obtained by avoiding the use of the longitudinal Majorana fermion, and that correlations of the remaining transverse Majorana fermions can be easily evaluated using an effective Gaussian action.
We propose a setup involving Majorana bound states (MBS) hosted by a vortex on a superconducting surface of a 3D topological insulator (TI). We consider a narrow channel drilled across a TI slab with both sides covered by s-wave superconductor. In the presence of a vortex pinned to such a channel, it acts as a ballistic nanowire connecting the superconducting surfaces, with a pair of MBS localized in it. The energies of the MBS possess a 4π-periodic dependence on the superconductive phase difference φ between the surfaces. It results in the appearance of an anomalous term in the current-phase relation Ia(φ) for the supercurrent flowing along the channel between the superconductive surfaces. We have calculated the shape of the 4π-periodic function Ia(φ), as well as the dependence of its amplitude on temperature and system parameters.
We study tunneling spectroscopy of subgap Andreev states in a superconducting system and discuss the general situation when the discrete nature of these levels is relevant and thus the standard semiclassical result for tunneling conductance being proportional to the density of states is not applicable. If the tunneling coupling is weak, individual levels are resolved and the conductance G(V) at low temperatures is composed of a set of resonant Lorentz peaks which cannot be described within perturbation theory over tunneling strength. We establish a general formula for the peak widths and heights and show that the width of any peak scales as normal-state tunnel conductance, while its height is 2e2 h−1 and depends only on contact geometry and the spatial profile of the resonant Andreev level. We also establish an exact formula for the single-channel conductance that takes the whole Andreev spectrum into account, and use it to study the interference of Andreev reflection processes through different levels. We study tunneling conductance at finite bias G(eV >0) for a system with a pair of almost decoupled Majorana fermions and derive the conditions for the 'universal' zero-bias peak with the height 2e2/h to be observed in a realistic system which always hosts an even number of Majorana fermions.
In recent years, the physics community has experienced a revival of interest in spin effects in solid state systems. On one hand, the solid state systems, particularly, semiconductors and semiconductor nanosystems, allow us to perform benchtop studies of quantum and relativistic phenomena. On the other hand, this interest is supported by the prospects of realizing spin-based electronics, where the electron or nuclear spins may play a role of quantum or classical information carriers. This book looks in detail at the physics of interacting systems of electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors, with particular emphasis on low-dimensional structures. These two spin systems naturally appear in practically all widespread semiconductor compounds. The hyperfine interaction of the charge carriers and nuclear spins is particularly prominent in nanosystems due to the localization of the charge carriers, and gives rise to spin exchange between these two systems and a whole range of beautiful and complex physics of manybody and nonlinear systems. As a result, understanding of the intertwined spin systems of electrons and nuclei is crucial for in-depth studying and controlling the spin phenomena in semiconductors. The book addresses a number of the most prominent effects taking place in semiconductor nanosystems including hyperfine interaction, nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamical nuclear polarization, spin-Faraday and spin-Kerr effects, processes of electron spin decoherence and relaxation, effects of electron spin precession mode-locking and frequency focussing, as well as fluctuations of electron and nuclear spins.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.