Психологические факторы выбора и изменения стратегии действия
The paper discusses opportunities of a theoretical approach that considers choice as irreducible to the decision making. Psychological content and experience of choice are emphasized. We suggest to take into account in empirical research both formal and content characteristics of the choice as well as its development within the time, including a change of choice after negative feedback - both direct (the failure to achieve the main goal) and indirect (implicit failure of the other goals that are not main for the task) ones. The aim was to study choice and change of action strategy in the task (that is presented as a game) after indirect negative feedback in two different condition. In the experiment we asked 170 students of psychological majors to choose an action strategy (quantity of "energy" to invest in achieving the goal) in a game situation on the computer. In the neutral condition ("simple choice") final goal was formulated as a win for the character (young man achieving his career goals). In the motivating condition ("meaningful choice") participants were asked to play the role of a psychologist who helps the character to achieve goals that are important for him. In the motivating condition, in contrast to neutral one, the task was perceived as more difficult; respondents tended to change the chosen action strategy readily after indirect negative feedback (success against the main goal, but the implicit failure in the overall reduction of "energy"). In the neutral condition psychological factors of self-regulation (planning; reflective orientation in the planning and failure; acceptance, rumination, focusing on the problem, positive reappraisal as strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions) predicted the stability of choice. In the motivating condition focusing on the problem, positive reappraisal, and reflective orientation in failure were associated with confidence in the choice made, but not with its stability.