Методы визуализации больших деревьев,возникающих при решении задач оптимизации методом ветвей и границ
In this paper, we consider a method of storage, analysis and visualizing of large trees with the amount of 100 million nodes and more resulting in solving optimization problems by branch and bound algorithm. The solution provides a method for the collection of primary data from solver, analysis and processing of this data, as well as their subsequent visualization. The paper describes the architecture and basic software modules of the proposed solution.
In this paper, we develop a new tolerance-based Branch and Bound algorithm for solving NP-hard problems. In particular, we consider the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP), an NP-hard problem with large practical relevance. The main algorithmic contribution is our lower bounding strategy that uses the expected costs of including arcs in the solution to the assignment problem relaxation of the ATSP, the so-called lower tolerance values. The computation of the lower bound requires the calculation of a large set of lower tolerances. We apply and adapt a finding from that makes it possible to compute all lower tolerance values efficiently. Computational results show that our Branch and Bound algorithm exhibits very good performance in comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms, in particular for difficult clustered ATSP instances.
This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.
This book constitutes extended, revised and selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Optimization Problems and Their Applications, OPTA 2018, held in Omsk, Russia in July 2018. The 27 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 73 submissions. The papers are listed in thematic sections, namely location problems, scheduling and routing problems, optimization problems in data analysis, mathematical programming, game theory and economical applications, applied optimization problems and metaheuristics.
In this paper we consider two branch and bound algorithms for the maximum clique problem which demonstrate the best performance on DIMACS instances among the existing methods. These algorithms are MCS algorithm by Tomita et al. (2010) and MAXSAT algorithm by Li and Quan (2010a, b). We suggest a general approach which allows us to speed up considerably these branch and bound algorithms on hard instances. The idea is to apply a powerful heuristic for obtaining an initial solution of high quality. This solution is then used to prune branches in the main branch and bound algorithm. For this purpose we apply ILS heuristic by Andrade et al. (2012). The best results are obtained for p_hat1000-3 instance and gen instances with up to 11,000 times speedup.
The Cell Formation Problem (CFP) is an NP-hard optimization problem considered for cellular man- ufacturing systems. Because of its high computational complexity there have been developed a lot of heuristics and almost no exact algorithms for solving this problem. In this paper we suggest a branch- and-bound algorithm which provides exact solutions for the CFP with the grouping efficacy objective function. To linearize this fractional objective function we apply the Dinkelbach approach. Our algorithm finds optimal solutions for 24 of the 35 popular benchmark instances from literature and for the remaining instances it finds good solutions close to the best known. The difference in the grouping efficacy with the best known solutions is always less than 1.5%.
The cell formation problem (CFP) is an NP-hard optimization problem considered for cell manufacturing systems. Because of its high computational complexity several heuristics have been developed for solving this problem. In this paper we present a branch and bound algorithm which provides exact solutions of the CFP. This algorithm finds optimal solutions for 13 problems of the 35 popular benchmark instances from the literature.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.