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## Exact results for N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on compact toric manifolds and equivariant Donaldson invariants

We provide a contour integral formula for the exact partition function of N=2 supersymmetric U(N) gauge theories on compact toric four-manifolds by means of supersymmetric localisation. We perform the explicit evaluation of the contour integral for U(2) N=2* theory on P^2 for all instanton numbers. In the zero mass case, corresponding to the N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory, we obtain the generating function of the Euler characteristics of instanton moduli spaces in terms of quasi-modular forms. In the decoupling limit of infinite mass we find that the generating function of local and surface observables computes equivariant Donaldson invariants, thus proving in this case a long-standing conjecture by N. Nekrasov. In the case of vanishing first Chern class the resulting equivariant Donaldson polynomials are new.

We study conformal field theory with the symmetry algebra

The prepotentials for the quiver supersymmetric gauge theories are defined as quasiclassical tau-functions, depending on two different sets of variables: the parameters of the UV gauge theory or the bare compexified couplings, and the vacuum condensates of the theory in IR. The bare couplings are introduced as periods on the UV base curve, and the consistency of corresponding gradient formulas for the tau-functions is proven using the Riemann bilinear relations. It is shown, that dependence of generalised prepotentials for the quiver gauge theories upon the bare couplings turns to coincide with the corresponding formulas for the derivatives of tau-functions for the isomonodromic deformations. Computations for the SU(2) quiver gauge theories with bi- and tri-fundamental matter are performed explicitly and analysed in the context of 4d/2d correspondence

We developed a general non-perturbative framework for the BFKL spectrum of planar N=4 SYM, based on the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC). It allows one to study the spectrum in the whole generality, extending previously known methods to arbitrary values of conformal spin *n*. We show how to apply our approach to reproduce all known perturbative results for the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) Pomeron eigenvalue and get new predictions. In particular, we re-derived the Faddeev-Korchemsky Baxter equation for the Lipatov spin chain with non-zero conformal spin reproducing the corresponding BFKL kernel eigenvalue. We also get new non-perturbative analytic results for the Pomeron eigenvalue in the vicinity of |*n*| = 1*, *Δ = 0 point and we obtained an explicit formula for the BFKL intercept function for arbitrary conformal spin up to the 3-loop order in the small coupling expansion and partial result at the 4-loop order. In addition, we implemented the numerical algorithm of arXiv:1504.06640 as an auxiliary file to this arXiv submission. From the numerical result we managed to deduce an analytic formula for the strong coupling expansion of the intercept function for arbitrary conformal spin.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.