Модерность в России и СССР: отсутствующая, общая, альтернативная, переплетенная?
David-Fox`s article addresses the diversity of approaches to the concept "modernity" in historiography (mostly Anglo-American) of pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Although the concept of modernity is foundational for most historians, its meaning is still contentious. David-Fox lays out four basic approaches to modernity in application to Russia. Representatives of the first approach reject the notion that there has ever been modernity in Russia: for them, Russia is still a pre-modern state. the second approach suggests that Russian modernity exists and essentially resembles modernity in other countries; it is part of general international historical development. The third approach acknowledges the existence of many different modernities, each unique to its own state and region. Finally, the fourth approach proposes many modernities that are capable of intertwining amongst themselves, mixing with traditional elements and creating various hibrid formations.