Coping behavior of orthodox religious students in Russia
This article presents a study of coping behavior regarding Orthodox religious students in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Orthodox students from two universities in Russia (Moscow). The data collection methods are: Folkman and Lazarus’s coping-test, Smirnov’s psychometric techniques "Questionnaire of religious activity" and Shcherbatykh’s "Test for revealing of the level of individual religiosity". The study suggests that coping behavior is connected with the level of religiosity.
Coping with problems depends on a person’s causal attribution of the problems. Coping strategies and attitudes are different if the person thinks that the problem to be coped with is: (a) caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent and intervention; (b) created by somebody with hostile intent; (c) created by somebody with good intent (e.g., to create useful, developing difficulties, etc.) Opportunities of integration of approaches to coping behavior and to hostile intent attribution are discussed. Results of a study of coping with problems created by others vs. problems caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent are presented.
This article scrutinizes personality variable of successful coping with stress termed hardiness (inventors of the term are Susan Cobeisa and Salvatore Maddi, the author of the Russian equivalent zhiznestoikost' is D.A. Leontiev). Thе work offers results of the comparative examination of hardiness in students of an Orthodox university and of secular universities.
Religious teachings have played a significant role in the development of human rights, but nowadays, they do not exert any serious influence on the latter. In recent decades, the major religions focus on developing their own human rights concepts which are compared to modern liberal theories. Such religious teachings differ in several relevant aspects. The beginnings of Buddhism and Protestantism do not reject the democratic and liberal understanding ofhuman rights, but the Orthodoxyand Islam focus on opposing their attitudes to such interpretation. The question as to the possibilityto take into account religious views within the framework of human rights legal theory remains open.
The article discusses the concept of "religious person", the substructure of personality religious rights (religious consciousness and religious behavior and religious relations), analyzes the reasons for the classification types of believers, these foreign and domestic authors.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.