E-waste bans and US households’ preferences for disposing of their e-waste
To deal with the inadequate disposal of e-waste, many states have instituted bans on its disposal in municipal landfills. However, the effectiveness of e-waste bans does not seem to have been analyzed yet. This paper starts addressing this gap. Using data from a survey of U.S. households, we estimate multivariate logit models to explain past disposal behavior by households of broken/obsolete ("junk") cell phones and disposal intentions for "junk" TVs. Our explanatory variables include factors summarizing general awareness of environmental issues, pro-environmental behavior in the past year, attitudes toward recycling small electronics (for the cell phones model only), socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the presence of state e-waste bans. We find that California's Cell Phone Recycling Act had a significant and positive impact on the recycling of junk cell phones; however, state disposal bans for junk TVs seem to have been mostly ineffective, probably because they were poorly publicized and enforced. Their effectiveness could be enhanced by providing more information about e-waste recycling to women, and more generally to adults under 60. Given the disappointing performance of policies implemented to-date to enhance the collection of e-waste, it may be time to explore economic instruments such as deposit-refund systems.
According to the author, the quality of political parties and public administration are highly dependent on the ability of the citizens to self-organization, their concernment in public aff airs and also the extent government bodies are interested in cooperation with social structures.
The article presents an analysis of the development of metropolitan areas in Mexico and in the State of Hidalgo.
The author explores the reasons behind the crisis of single industry towns, possibilities and challenges of public private partnership in such towns, presenting foreign experience of transformation of old industrial territories and giving recommendations aimed at increasing efficiency of public policy concerning single industry towns.
The dominant policy style in Russia is reactive, short-term, hierarchical, and state-driven – the result of a strong legacy of authoritarianism as a stable component of political regimes in the Russian Empire, USSR, and the Russian Federation. More complex reasons lie behind this riven or divided policy-making style: namely, a split between universalities or ideology as a foundation for policy legitimacy and implementation. There is a significant gap between declared policy goals and ideas, planned policy strategies and formulations, on the one hand, and policy implementation, on the other. Manual government, corruption, and state imposition define the policy formulation process in Russia. Due to the strength of the imperial legacy and “empire syndrome” ideology, the riven policy style is reproduced by bureaucrats, experts, political elites, and the public, despite the widening gap between public declarations and policy outcomes. Simulations and imitations of strategic and anticipative policy-making, especially at the policy formulation stage, characterize the behavior of key policy actors. Nevertheless, in some sectors such as education, policy styles can differ from the dominant one to a more anticipative and inclusive, long term because of the active position of policy communities such as citizens’ groups and associations or epistemic communities.
Russian federal agencies have created a variety of consultative bodies during the last decade, but their role in the agency's decision-making process is yet to be evaluated. Relevant experience of other countries proposes two major political factors of consultative bodies' influence. The political culture orientation towards compromise and positive perception of interest groups' participation in the decision-making process seem to contribute to that influence.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The Working Paper examines the peculiarities of the Russian model of corporate governance and control in the banking sector. The study relies upon theoretical as well as applied research of corporate governance in Russian commercial banks featuring different forms of ownership. We focus on real interests of all stakeholders, namely bank and stock market regulators, bank owners, investors, top managers and other insiders. The Anglo-American concept of corporate governance, based on agency theory and implying outside investors’ control over banks through stock market, is found to bear limited relevance. We suggest some ways of overcoming the gap between formal institutions of governance and the real life.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.