Глобальные цепочки создания стоимости и корпоративные интересы транснациональных корпораций
Modern stage of development of the world trade is characterized by phenomenon of Global value chains (GVC), which means a situation when the final good at each stage of production is produced in different regions of the World. This trend mainly can be attributed to separate production units within Multinational Corporations (MNCs) rather than to different countries. Generally, there is a positive correlation between the share of inward foreign direct investments (FDI) in GDP of a specific country and the level of its participation in GVCs and its internal value added in the export: the higher the former, the bigger is latter. So it is becoming more and more important for individual economies to integrate into existing GVCs. The author outlines positive and negative effects of countries’ participation in GVCs, which are created and controlled by foreign MNCs. Additionally, the article explains the mechanism of MNCs’ impact on GVC development. Today we can see that a new trend of the international trade is the growing role of MNCs from emerging countries like China and India. So the main conclusion is that in order to benefit from participation in GVC countries need to stimulate the creation and growth of their own multinationals.
The paper explores the evolution of trade and economic relations between Russia and Myanmar in 1948-2018. The author compares the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Myanmar cooperation with China, India and Russia, highlighting their features and prospects. Summarizing the results, the author states that, despite the currently modest volumes of trade and investment, the potential for developing foreign economic relations between Russia and Myanmar is very high. However, Myanmar is an important link in the regional strategies of China and India, which also belong to the BRICS and the SCO. Therefore, it is impossible for Russia to build its political and economic ties with Myanmar without taking these aspects of regional relations into account.
This book contains a unique collection of studies on key economic and social policy challenges faced by countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region in a short- and long-term perspective. Prepared within the EU funded FP7 project on „Prospective Analysis for the Mediterranean Region (MEDPRO)” conducted in 2010-2013 it takes account on recent political developments in the region (Arab Spring) and their potential consequences. It covers a broad spectrum of topics such as factors of economic growth, macroeconomic and fiscal stability, trade and investment, Euro-Mediterranean and intra-regional economic integration, private sector development and privatizations, infrastructure, tourism, agriculture, financial sector development, poverty and inequality, education, labor market and gender issues.
This collection of papers is a combined initiative of EPF member think tanks and is the result of two round-table discussions under the Regional Integration research stream. The first event, ‘Drivers of Regional Integration’, took place in Cape Town, 25-27 November 2014; the second, ‘Regional Integration and Regional Value Chains’ was held in Moscow, 21 May 2015.
Drawing on the neo-institutional approach in organizational theory and global strategy, we advance a theory on the impact that differences in cultural egalitarianism have on multinational firms’ decision of where to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI) across the globe. Egalitarianism expresses a society’s cultural orientation with respect to intolerance for abuses of market and political power; it shapes the ways in which firms holding power interact with different stakeholders. After presenting a series of case illustrations, we find a strong negative impact of egalitarianism distance on FDI flows in a broad sample of nations and for different entry modes. Our results are robust to a broad set of competing accounts, including effects from other cultural dimensions, major features of the legal and regulatory regimes, other features of the institutional system, and economic development. These results hold while controlling for origin and host country factors through a fixed-effects specification as well as by using instruments for egalitarianism. We also find that other cultural influences are important as well. Differences in cultural harmony are actually positively associated with increased FDI flows, likely because multinational firms seek countries with lower societal support for entrepreneurship. FDI further tends to flow from high embeddedness to low embeddedness countries, and we link this in part to international regulatory arbitrage on environmental protection regimes.
The article examines the experience of China's investment policy aimed at creating favorable conditions to attract investment, particularly foreign direct investments, to the most important country's industries. In recent years, this policy (the establishment of free economic zones, trade liberalization, the establishment of an appropriate legislative framework, state support for investors) has brought noticeable positive results, but with the beginning of the global financial crisis allowed to avoid the most painful consequences. This experience taking into account all its particularities can be useful for our economy.
Currently the role of the country in the international arena is basically determined by its economic and political "weight" among the leaders. A comparison of major economic indicators in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South - Africa and other countries is considered. It is noted that the BRICS countries can be an important element in the system of global management, especially in the financial and economic sphere. The BRICS has attracted considerable attention as an alliance that has unusual geographical and functional parameters. This fact allows attributing it to the new format of communication between countries. Belonging to the new markets, the BRICS countries are playing a significant role in contemporary International relations and are active participants in a globalization of the world economy.
The paper studies a problem of optimal insurer’s choice of a risk-sharing policy in a dynamic risk model, so-called Cramer-Lundberg process, over infinite time interval. Additional constraints are imposed on residual risks of insureds: on mean value or with probability one. An optimal control problem of minimizing a functional of the form of variation coefficient is solved. We show that: in the first case the optimum is achieved at stop loss insurance policies, in the second case the optimal insurance is a combination of stop loss and deductible policies. It is proved that the obtained results can be easily applied to problems with other optimization criteria: maximization of long-run utility and minimization of probability of a deviation from mean trajectory.