Психологическое сопровождение неизлечимо больных в хосписе как социально-гуманитарная практика современности
In the article it is discussed the features of palliative care, particularly the care for the incurable patients in a hospice. It is described the changes in the philosophy of the humanitarian sphere and the emergence of a new human right - the right to a dignified death. Special attention is given to the work of psychologist in palliative care and specificity of training of specialist in the field of socio-medical care for incurable patients. It is said about psychological phenomena that occur in the work of psychologist at the hospice, as well as the techniques and methods of consulting of patients. It is discussed the personality of consulting psychologist.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine
Over the past ten years the development of scientific school “Phenomenology of personality development and existence” of V. S. Mukhina had been analyzed from a perspective of disciples. Describes the major milestones of scientific and teaching profession, the profession of a writer and social activity of V. S. Mukhina as a founder and leader of scientific school. Declare the personal-biographical attitude of disciple to his teacher.
The connection of L.I. Antsyferova’s ideas of the personal development and counseling psychology is traced. The main principles of applied personality psychology are described (system, determinism, development, and complementarity). Synergetic and compensatory interaction between the person and situation is considered. Everyday life psychology as a theoretical base of counseling is analyzed. The interrelation of counseling and natural psychotherapy is discussed. Deficient and self-actualization models of psychotherapy are identified. The empirical data about natural techniques of client’s self-help in cases of deficient and self-actualization complaints are shown. It is concluded that everyday life is a significant resource of personal development.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.