### Article

## Solitons in a Third-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with the Pseudo-Raman Scattering and Spatially Decreasing Second-Order Dispersion

Evolution of solitons is addressed in the framework of a third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), including nonlinear dispersion, third-order dispersion and a pseudo-stimulated-Raman-scattering (pseudo-SRS) term, i.e., a spatial-domain counterpart of the SRS term, which is well known as a part of the temporal domain NLSE in optics. In this context, it is induced by the underlying interaction of the high-frequency envelope wave with a damped low-frequency wave mode. In addition, spatial inhomogeneity of the secondorder dispersion (SOD) is assumed. As a result, it is shown that the wavenumber downshift of solitons, caused by the pseudo-SRS, can be compensated with the upshift provided by decreasing SOD coefficients. Analytical results and numerical results are in a good agreement.

Dynamics of Langmuir solitons is considered in the framework of the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), including a pseudo-stimulated-Raman-scattering (pseudo-SRS) term, caused by stimulated scattering on damping ion-sound waves. Also included are spatially decreasing second-order dispersion (SOD) and increasing self-phase modulation (SPM), caused by spatial decreasing electron temperature of plasma. It is shown that the wavenumber downshift of solitons, caused by the pseudo-SRS, may be compensated by an upshift provided by the decreasing SOD and increasing SPM coefficients. An analytical solution for solitons is obtained in an approximate form. Analytical and numerical results agree well.

In this paper described the results of numerical experiment of performance indicators of financial strategies that can be applied in a series of games with nature. Under performance indictors understood Bayesian criterion (expectation of winning). Numerical simulation was performed by elementary means of Microsoft Excel. A comparison of the values in the course of the experiment with theoretical values shows accordance between real and simulated data.

The stationary waves with nonlinear phase modulation in the frame of the extended nonlinear Schrodinger equation with taking into account both the nonlinear dispersion and stimulated Raman-scattering terms are considered. Two classes of a kink–waves are found: one class exists as the result of balance of the stimulated Raman--scattering and nonlinear dispersion, other class – as the result of balance of the stimulated Raman-scattering and second-order linear dispersion. Is show that kink-waves with pedestal exist only in present of the nonlinear dispersion.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Dynamics of short solitons envelope in the frame of the third-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations taking into account stimulated Raman-scattering and inhomogeneous second– and third-order linear dispersion, nonlinear dispersion and cubic nonlinearity is considered. Compensation of the stimulated Raman-scattering effect by the increasing of the second-order linear dispersion is shown. In adiabatic approximation stable soliton’s propagation regime is found. Third-order linear dispersion and nonlinear dispersion inhomogeneity effect to stimulated Raman-scattering compensation is analyzed.

Propagation of the short vector envelope solitons in a inhomogeneous medium with linear potential in coupled third–order nonlinear Shrodinger equations frame is considered. Explicit vector soliton solution is obtained. The explicit solution for the solitons trajectories is studied. In particular cases this solitons solution can be reduced as to the short scalar soliton solution on linear inhomogeneity profile, as to well – known Chen soliton solution.

Many electronic devices operate in a cyclic mode. This should be considered when forecastingreliability indicators at the design stage.The accuracy of the prediction and the planning for the event to ensure reliability depends on correctness of valuation and accounting greatest possiblenumber of factors. That in turn will affect the overall progress of the design and, in the end,result in the quality and competitiveness of products

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.