Технология использования учебных тестов при изучении курса математики в вузе
The article considers the questions of the use of educational tests for the formation of the skills, systematization of knowledge and monitoring the results of teaching mathematical disciplines at National Research University Higher School of Economics – Perm branch. Presents the technology of the use of educational and methodical complex consisting of multilevel thematic tests according to the main sections of the course of the higher mathematics. The author shares the experience of using tests in teaching of a course of the higher mathematics in an economic university. It is proposed to use the educational tests not only for monitoring the results, but as a training tool for systematization of knowledge and organization of independent activity of students, including their out-of-class work.
Our experience of the organization of extracurricular independent work of upper-form pupils when doing homework in mathematics in educational institutions of Perm is described. The practical use of a thematic test complex on the main sections of a school algebra course, aimed at individualization and differentiation of teaching, is presented.
The article discusses the classifications of traditional sciences (vidyā, śāstra) in the Sanskrit texts of the Upanishads (Chāndogya and Muṇḍaka), in the Manusmṛti, Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra, Lalitavistara, Vatsyayāna’s Kāmasūtra et al. N. Kanaeva demonstrates that the authors of these classifications were brāhmans whereas the non-brāhmanical systems of science classifications did not introduce anything new into them because they had inherited them along with the traditions of brāhmanical educational system. Brāhmanical classifications of systems of knowledge were built according to a pragmatic criterion as lists of types of knowledge employed in the social practices of the higher varṇas: brāhmans, kṣatriyas and vaiśyas. In the Middle Ages another criterion for classification of sciences emerges — orientation to tradition (traditionalism) resulting in complicated lists combining theoretical and practical knowledge (“sciences” and “arts”).
The research urgency is caused by necessity to build a clear hierarchy of objectives of teaching mathematics for different groups of professions (technical, economic, humanitarian) in Universities. Defining priorities allows focusing on the most important goals of teaching mathematics. In this regard, this paper is focused on the calculation of numerical values of priorities of the following strategic objectives in teaching mathematics: the formation of mathematical competences for the solution of professional tasks; the formation of logical thinking; the education of mathematical culture in teaching mathematics. These are the very goals which determine the mission of teaching mathematics in high school. A leading approach to the study of such problems is a method of hierarchies’ analysis by Thomas Saaty which allows bringing the qualitative (linguistic) expert assessment of the objectives’ importance into the quantitative values of their priorities. The author has modernized this method, organized the process of peer-review assessment of the objectives’ importance in teaching mathematics and first got the numerical values of the priorities, showing the importance of each of the objectives to achieve the goal of teaching mathematics in high school. The materials of the article are of practical value for teachers of mathematics, heads of departments of mathematics and academic managers in higher education institutions, since the hierarchy of objectives allows highlighting of the most important ones in the development of curricula, programs of mathematical disciplines and teaching methods.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.