The Barriers of Access to Selective Universities in Russia
This paper examines the characteristics of students admitted to Russian universities with different levels of selectivity. First, we argue that students differ not only by the results of the Unified State Exam (USE), the university entrance exam, but by family and school characteristics, and by educational strategies. Next, it is shown that the probability of being admitted to the most selective HEIs is determined not only by the USE scores, but by characteristics that are not directly related to the applicants’ abilities, such as class specialisation in secondary schools, and high school location. Moreover, we have found that income has an indirect impact on the admission results: a higher level of income increases the probability of being admitted to highly selective universities through the level of investment in pre-entry coaching and the regional differences in wages. On the other hand, regional differences in costs of living decrease the opportunities of studying in selective universities. Hence, schooling and financial barriers without alternative student support can limit the participation of less affluent students in selective universities.
This article attempts to analyze the requirements of modern society living at the time of innovation-driven economy to education and determines the main objectives that, as the authors believe, should become the cornerstone in reforming the system of education.
The article deals with the problems related to combination and close interweaving of two mechanisms of functioning - official and unofficial (corruption) - in modern education in Russia. The assessments of illegal payments paid by households on different stages of the educational process are given in the article. The main attention is paid to the stage of entering the HEI and partly to the process of learning. Certain aspects of influence of wide spread occurrence of enrolment system based on Russian National Exam results over the illegal component of costs are demonstrated and discussed on a qualitative level. Results of representative surveys of households, interviewed regularly by «Public Opinion» Foundation and NRU - HSE ordered by Department of Education and Science of Russian Federation in 2002-2008, form the empirical basis for the article.
Innovation is one of the most important concepts that appear in the literature devoted to management and economics in recent years. This is connected with changes that occur as a result of implementing innovation in a knowledge-based economy. Innovation is such an important matter that support for it is considered both at the level of central and regional institutions (macro- and meso-level) and at enterprise level (microeconomic level). This publication focuses on discussing innovation at enterprise level, and because of the great importance of information and communication technology in the modern economy, most of the chapters are devoted to marketing innovation on the Internet. This monograph is intended for all those who are interested in the teaching aspect of innovation management, especially for students and faculty members involved in programmes and specializations devoted to innovation; managers who are interested in the behaviour of Internet users and other consumers; as well as people who want to broaden their knowledge with regard to economic innovation. The first chapter, devoted to entrepreneurship, contains a synthetic presentation of approaches to defining entrepreneurship in economic theory and delineates the relationships that exist between entrepreneurship and innovation, both in the context of the risk taken by an entrepreneur and in the context of the entrepreneurial process, which is inextricably connected with all instances of innovation. The second chapter discusses the significance of the triple helix model in local innovation systems. It shows the importance of bilateral and trilateral relationships in the university-business-government system; which in the case of open innovation are essential to reduce the risks involved in implementing innovations. The third chapter is devoted to consumer behaviour, which is an important factor that must be considered when initiating and developing the innovation process. The author presents scientific findings relating to consumer behaviour, defines the basic processes involved in this behaviour, as well as discussing trends in consumer behaviour, illustrated with numerous examples. The fourth chapter discusses the principles of innovative product management. The author defines the general concept and the types of products, innovation and innovation processes, as well as delineating the most important features of the innovation process. Particular attention is given to methods of dealing with the most difficult stage of the innovation process, referred to as the “valley of death”. In the fifth chapter, which concerns innovative brands, the author focuses on the significance of customer’s experiences in the process of building a relationship with a brand. The chapter concludes with an example of using sensory marketing in the business model implemented at Starbucks. The sixth chapter, devoted to marketing control, presents the metrics for measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities. It describes the basic principles of marketing control, discusses the assessment of marketing at the strategic level, as well as presenting a set of indicators which are useful for the evaluation of sales and distribution management and for the assessment of marketing communications, with particular emphasis on measuring the performance of online marketing. The next three chapters relate directly to marketing innovation on the Internet. In chapter seven, devoted to e-commerce, after defining the basic concepts, the author discusses the business models that dominate in online activities as well as indicating the basic forms of organization in electronic commerce. Chapter eight deals with building a marketing strategy on social media, including multi-channel communication. The author describes the process of building a community around a brand, indicates actions designed to generate consumer engagement, and discusses ways of collecting data about the recipients on social media. In chapter nine, the issue of creating value for customers in e-commerce is discussed. The author shows how this value changes in different phases of the life cycle of relationships with customers in online retailing, describes the activities characteristic to each stage of the cycle, and presents techniques which are useful in building relationships with customers. The tenth and final chapter may be useful for people who conduct classes in English. It is devoted to the use of metaphors as a teaching tool and a means for conceptualization. The chapter discusses the significance of metaphors in teaching English and gives examples of some useful metaphors connected with football which can help in conducting classes for a group of English-speaking students, as well as presenting metaphor models in academic English. This monograph is a result of the project “Innovation Management – an English-language Master’s programme supported by modern information technologies,” number FSS/2014/HEI/W/0095, funded by the Foundation for the Development of the Education System and implemented under the Measure Development of Polish Higher Education Institutions, as well as research conducted in the Faculty of Management at the Poznań University of Economics, primarily by the staff of the Department of Trade and Marketing
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.