The problems of identity are no new theme in the research in African politics. In the foreground of interest of political scientists, historians, philosophers, sociologists and experts in African studies the identity appears in particular in connection with the for¬mation of African nations, the existence of nationalities and ethnics, which have direct influence on the operation of the African political system, especially its institutions. The scholars use a great many different approaches, which suggest the importance of these issues in the research in African integration processes and especially the process of development of modern African nations.
Entro la metà del XIII secolo l'Europa medievale raggiunse un certo successo nell’approvazione del sistema repubblicano, nell'espansione del commercio mondiale, e nella transizione verso un'economia di mercato. Nei secoli XIII – XV si verificò l'espansione del commercio europeo con l'Oriente nella regione del Mar Nero, lo sviluppo di nuove rotte commerciali e la nascita delle colonie italiane nel Levante e sul Mar Nero. La stabilità portata dalla conquista mongola ebbe un impatto positivo sul commercio a lunga distanza, sopratutto nella regione del Mar Nero. La tipologia di merci esportate dalle rive del Mar Nero e dal Mar d'Azov era abbastanza ampia. L’intero commercio della regione era sotto lo stretto controllo dell’amministrazione delle colonie. I mercanti italiani si stabilirono nella regione settentrionale del Mar Nero perché i Khan dell'Orda d'Oro erano ben consapevoli dell'importanza del commercio internazionale nel loro territorio per il loro stato, e del grande e costante flusso di denaro nelle loro casse, proveniente dalla riscossione delle imposte di negoziazione. Caffa era il centro delle colonie genovesi. La redditività del commercio causò la migrazione latino-cristiana in Crimea. L’evoluzione e la trasformazione di questa migrazione è il tema del presente articolo.
The coronavirus pandemic (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, 2019nCoV), which, according to the Chinese office of the World Health Organization (WHO), began to spread from Wuhan no later than December 2019, now has secured its place among global security challenges. Scientists are trying to develop a vaccine against the 2019-nCoV virus, and WHO is helping them. According to the Nature magazine, in April 2020, more than 90 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were in the development of a number of pharmaceutical companies (for example, Moderna, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline) and research groups at universities around the world. Researchers tested various technologies, some of which had not previously been used in licensed vaccines. In this paper, we will try to outline some trends in the fight against the pandemic within the countries of the Iberian Peninsula, special attention will be paid to information coverage of this process and misinformation (fake news phenomenon)
This textbook is the product of a collective effort of historians from several research institutes and universities. In a concise and accssible form the authors cover the main problems and topics of the history of Sub-Saharan Africa from 15th century to the present. Among these are the development of African civilisations, the creation and the collapse of colonial systems,the making of colonial society, the development of anti-colonialism and the development of African nationalism, and the events, problems and challenges of the late 20th - early 21st centuries. The texbook contains essays on the history of 20 countries of the region.Uniquely, it also offers a history of relations between Russia and Black Africa.The sizable supplement contains documents pertaining to the history of the region. Indexes, chronology, glossary and bibliography conclude the text. The texbook is the first Russian manual on the modern and contemporary history of sub-Saharan Africa.
Confirmation of privileges in the Portuguese university during the reign of King John I (1384/1385-1433)
The article is dedicated to the problem of continuity and historical memory in a emerging medieval corporation. It observes the end of Portuguese Interregnum 1383-1385 and the first years of the Avis period.
There are two groups of sources in my investigation. The first group consists of the royal diplomas, some of them were donated during John of Avis (future John I) was still protector of the kingdom. Sources of the second group are descriptions of the certification procedures in preambles and conclusions of notarial copies of royal and papal diplomas – and also some particular certification documents. It’s important to underline that most of these certifications form the cartulary of the university privileges. Now we have its copy of the XV c. – Livro Verde (Green book). This codex was an important source of the corporate law until reforms of the XVIII c.
By these texts it’s possible to investigate how the emerging system of corporate law was put into practice. Also I try to analyze its integration to the system of the Royal law.
The author looks at the airbase on the (Portugal) as a showcase of America's attitude to its lesser NATO partners, and a demonstration of how an individual nation can use the home field advantage to play with the superpower and a military alliance at its peak in the modern multipolar world.
The book focuses on the network of the Genoese colonies in the Black Sea area and their diverse multi-ethnic societies. The Genoese colonies in Crimea existed during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and attracted a broad variety of immigrants from the Mediterranean.
Chapter is dedicted to the history of the Portuguese university archive in the Middle ages and observes its role in formation and continuity of academic corporation.
The article shows how the Hamitic hypothesis invented by early European anthropologists was promoted by German and Belgian colonizers and missionaries to explain the native Rwandan society and organize it into pseudo-racial hierarchies under colonial rule, how the colonial ethnicist practices and ideologies resulted in ethnicist consciousness-raising of populations and how the Rwandan post-colonial political regimes supported, instrumentalized and institutionalized them to consolidate their power. The author concludes that these historical developments made the Hamitic hypothesis a significant factor in the Rwandan genocide of 1994.