Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital
This article analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents, integration in public education decreases their children’s human capital levels. I demonstrate that the poor, who cannot opt out, incur greater costs than the rich, who can resort to private education. I also analyze the overall society-wide effect of the integration policy and derive a condition that determines precisely whether this policy increases or decreases the average level of human capital in society
Russia’s declining birth rate is linked to a delay in a family’s decision to have children and to uncertainty about the place of children in a couple’s relationship. Despite the rise of individualism and the importance of career and self-realization, however, the family retains a very important place in Russian society.
In the article authors use the vital birh and death registration data on 10 regions exctracted from the Rosstat database to evaluate an input of international migrant into Russian fertility and mortality levels.
The authors discuss social and demographic processes in the rural regions of the Russian Near North and, first of all, in the Kostroma region – one of the socially problematic regions in the Russian Federation. In the article, the attention is focused on the analysis of mechanisms and assessment of scales of the depopulation: high mortality, migration of youth and middle aged people to the cities, deformations in age and gender structure with prevalence of the elderly population and a small share of children. The authors state essential distinctions of demographic indicators between municipalities in the Kostroma region and emphasize importance of social and demographic research on a basic municipal level. Indicators of the low life expectancy, high mortality caused by external reasons (alcoholism, murders, suicides, etc.), and high migration of youth are seen as the objective indicators of social problems in the local communities. It demands special attention on the part of the government authorities that plan social programs and take administrative decisions.
This chapter discusses the features of the development of the Russian population and the results of population projections to 2025
From XVI - XVII centuries, modern European political philosophy put the State in the center of his investigations. The key-question raised in several works of the philosophers of modern Time until the XVIII century was the question about the State sovereignty. The XVIII century became a starting point in the philosophical tradition where the State was often considered from the point of view of his providential divinity or from the point of view of the general power which it represents. The novelty of the XVIII century consisted in the more definite pronunciation of the liberal requirement of the rational limitation of power of State by individual liberty. It is a question of putting the emphasis on modern subject of human rights, or natural rights. This evolution of political ideas in Europe influenced a lot the history of Russia who has been for the XVIII century in the course of hereuropeanization at political and cultural levels. In both domains, this transfer and the same expansion of European ideas and valuesto Russia brought in big conflicts inside which showed itself, on the one hand, in the opposition of the imperial ambition of the Russian State and of the strengthening of nationalism in the XIX century; and, on the other hand, in the opposition of universalism and of nationalism, as ethical and valuableprinciple, caused by cultural difference between Europe and Russia. In this article it is examined the reflexing of the Russian authors of XVIII-XIX centuries about the constitution of the best political regime and on his foundations, among which public education was considered as one of most important. Debates on the purposes of national public education, showed well the importance of the education of a new type of the personand of his training in compliance with new national purposes.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.