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## Improving the efficiency of solving discrete optimization problems: The case of VRP

Paper is devoted constructing efficient metaheuristics algorithms for discrete optimization problems. Particularly, we consider vehicle routing problem applying original ant colony optimization method to solve it. Besides, some parts of algorithm are separated for parallel computing. Some experimental results are performed to compare the efficiency of these methods.

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The manual sets out the requirements of science and industry, leading to use of multicomputer systems and multiprocessor systems, which inevitably use the principle of parallel computing, background and state of the art, describes the main approaches to the organization of multiprocessor computer systems, development of parallel algorithms for the numerical solution of problems and parallel programming techniques.

The problem of automatic vehicle routing for oil products transportation from storage depots to filling stations is considered. An overview of existing software solutions and their limitations are shown. Metaheuristic algorithm for solving this problem is described, software architecture of the system is proposed.

The paper presents a tabu search heuristic for the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem (FSMVRP) with hard and soft time windows. The objective function minimizes the sum of travel costs, fixed vehicle costs and penalties for soft time window violations. The algorithm is based on the tabu search with several neighborhoods. The main contribution of the paper is the efficient algorithm for a real-life vehicle routing problem. To our knowledge there are no papers devoted to the FSMVRP problem with soft time windows, while in real-life problems this is a usual case. We investigate the performance of the proposed heuristic on the classical Solomon instances with additional constraints. We also compare our approach without soft time windows and heterogeneous fleet of vehicles with the recently published results on the VRP problem with hard time windows.

The book contains selected papers that were presented on PhD Summer schools on Scientific Computing jointly organized by Waterford Institute of Technology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Saint-Petersburg State University and Nanjing University of Technology. The schoold were mainly organized in teleconference mode and linked researchers and PhD students from several countries.

The problems of identifying latent parallelism in the algorithm by explicitly max (the construction of stacked-parallel form of the algorithm graph) and implicit (the method of streaming - DATA-FLOW - calculations), the development of parallel programs in the MPI-paradigm programming and quantitative research strength calculations for the acceleration parallelization on the parameters of a multiprocessor system and the quality of parallel programs. The manual is practical and can be used by students to prepare for the performance of laboratory and practice of the works, of course and diploma projects. Generated by network applications ra-operability in a multiprocessor environment, architecture MPP (Massively Par-allel Processing); particularly on Linux-cluster computing IT department MGUPI 4. Before working to understand whole con-SPECT lectures on 'Parallel Computing'.

The research subject is the computational complexity of the probabilistic neural network (PNN) in the pattern recognition problem for large model databases. We examined the following methods of increasing the efficiency of a neuralnetwork classifier: a parallel multithread realization, reducing the PNN to a criterion with testing of homogeneity of feature histograms of input and reference images, approximate nearestneighbor analyses (BestBin First, directed enumeration methods). The approach was tested in facialrecognition experiments with FERET dataset.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.