Переключение кодов и заимствования как чужая речь: маркирование русских элементов в калмыцком языке
The article presents an overview of code-switching and other cases of the juxtaposition of two languages and borrowings from Russian in Kalmyk based on the empirical data. Code-switching is a very common phenomenon in communication among Kalmyks. On a functional level, it is often used as a communicative strategy and, on the structural level, texts provide evidence of two main patterns of nonce borrowings adaptation. The first one is the light verb strategy with auxiliary ke- ‘do’ and an infinitive of the Russian verb, the second accommodation strategy for a noun phrase is a pattern with verb gi- ‘say’ which exhibits features of grammaticalization. It is demonstrated in the article that the sources of a marker of borrowing nouns may be both code-switching in the direct and reported speech with a verb of saying and a construction with a form of habitual participle gidǝg.