Переключение кодов и заимствования как чужая речь: маркирование русских элементов в калмыцком языке
The article presents an overview of code-switching and other cases of the juxtaposition of two languages and borrowings from Russian in Kalmyk based on the empirical data. Code-switching is a very common phenomenon in communication among Kalmyks. On a functional level, it is often used as a communicative strategy and, on the structural level, texts provide evidence of two main patterns of nonce borrowings adaptation. The first one is the light verb strategy with auxiliary ke- ‘do’ and an infinitive of the Russian verb, the second accommodation strategy for a noun phrase is a pattern with verb gi- ‘say’ which exhibits features of grammaticalization. It is demonstrated in the article that the sources of a marker of borrowing nouns may be both code-switching in the direct and reported speech with a verb of saying and a construction with a form of habitual participle gidǝg.
The article covers different variants of language interaction in the modern world – from code-switching to borrowings – resulting from the language contacts (bilingual and multilingual) and reflecting sociocultural changes during the globalization period. Forms and mechanisms for interaction of the Russian and German languages and the formation of sociocultural identity in a multicultural society are analyzed through the example of sociolinguistic situation of the Russian speaking diaspora in Germany.
The article deals with the research of the German youth jargon using lexicographic sources of the second half of the XXth century. Semantic parallels with the student language of the fi rst half of the XIXth century are drawn. The article demonstrates the differences in the youth jargon of Eastern and Western Germany.
The author analyses different approaches to studying code-switching as a phenomenon of bilingual communication, examines the underlying mechanisms of bilingual code-switching, identifies factors which affect code-switching in translation and defines specific characteristics of translator’s code-switching. The paper introduces the concept of "linguacultural code-switching" in translation and describes its specific characteristics. The author identifies and describes a number of characteristic features typical of translator's language knowledge, which facilitate code-switching.
Bilingual education including, on the one hand, access to dominating language, and, on the other, - teaching in minority languages or teaching only languages themselves at school is an important part of language politics of a state. In many regions we observe a paradoxical situation: school education does not promote acquisition of a disappearing language, though it is highly valued by members of community. The article considers features of teaching minority languages at school in the Russian Federation on two examples - Nivkh and Kalmyk. Interviews with parents, pupils, former pupils and teachers allow to describe teaching native language at school as a procedure of maintaining identity of community.
Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
Variation and variety, basic linguistic notions elaborated, among many others, in Prof. Schweitzer’s works, are addressed in the article in the context of an increase in variation in modern Russian under the influence of global English. The increase in contact-induced variation is investigated in connection with the following: 1) an increase in borrowings and semantic calques from English into Russian, 2) an increase in Russian-English code-switching and code-mixing, and 3) major changes in Russian-English interaction contributing to the change of status of English in Russia and the initiation of a specific regional variety of English, Russia(n) English.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.