IV-Characteristics Measurement Error Resulting from Long Cables for Irradiated Bipolar Junction Transistors
I-V-characteristics of an irradiated transistor in many cases should be measured inside the radiation chamber with long cables, which introduces noticeable measurement error. In this paper I-V-characteristics of an irradiated bipolar junction transistor measured with the 4-wire and the 2- wire circuits are presented and compared to direct (without cables) measurements. Significant enlargement of measurement error for the 2-wire method in comparison with the 4-wire method is shown for different currents.
Can self-assessments of health reveal the true health differentials between ‘rich’ and ‘poor’? The potential sources of bias include psychological adaptation to ill-health, socioeconomic covariates of health reporting errors and income measurement errors. We propose an estimation method to reduce the bias by isolating the component of self-assessed health that is explicable in terms of objective health indicators and allowing for broader dimensions of economic welfare than captured by current incomes. On applying our method to survey data for Russia we find a pronounced (nonlinear) economic gradient in health status that is not evident in the raw data. This is largely attributable to the health effects of age, education and location.
The effects of neutron irradiation on both Si bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and SiGe heterojunction transistor (HBT) are investigated using Synopsys/ISE TCAD tool. For this purpose the carrier lifetime degradation under irradiation models are included in the program. It was established that at fluence 4×1013 cm-2 the Si BJT exhibited a degradation in current gain of 50% for high level and 80% for low level of E-B junction injection. For SiGe HBT at fluences as high as 1015 cm-2 the degradation of peak current gain is less than 40%, and the device maintains a peak current gain of 80 – 100 after 1015 cm-2. The cut-off and maximum oscillations frequencies are small sensitive to neutron irradiation. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.
The effect of various regimes of plasma irradiation in the "Plasma focus" device on the surface structure of vanadium has been studied. It is established that at the plasma power density values of 108 – 1010 W/cm2 there are pores, microcracks and gas bubbles in the structure of material. In addition, as a result of the plasma action, the ejection of individual pieces of material from the irradiated vanadium surface was observed.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.