Содержание и сущность понятия «инвестиций».
This article is devoted to the questions relevant to the notion “investment”, the special features of the investment.
There is an attempt to consider this difficult and ambiguous phenomenon from the point of view of economic and legal doctrines in article. The attempt is allowed to investigate complex the content and essence of this phenomenon, to show its economic and legal features.
These investment features are made to set up correlation and distinguish between the notion «investment» and similar phenomena.
In addition, there are the author's definitions of the notions “investments.” For example, author propose to define the “investments” the economic point of view as - it is the capital, which has special purpose (to gain the benefits), and the “investment process”- it is the placement process of the capital, which has special purpose (to gain the benefits).
The «investments» as legal point of view is a benefit or set of the benefits which are put in objects of business and (or) other activity for receiving profit and (or) achievement of other social effect.
The study studies the role of investment processes in regional innovation development. The analysis of regional investment processes allows to identify main trends and to evaluate possibilities of investing in development of innovation environment. The researchers propose to expand possibilities of investment activities in regional development. The researchers substantiated the correlation between investment policy and innovational regional development. The results of the survey proved the possibility of practical use of indicators of investment policy’s efficiency when developing directions of regional innovation development.
Why doesn’t Russia grow? While Russia’s economy still has a lot of potential, levels of investment and firm entry have been low and declining over the last couple of years. Even more so than international sanctions and declining oil prices, one of the main reasons for Russia’s adverse investment climate are adverse institutions. In this paper, we show that losing your firm through predatory raiding attacks by criminal groups or corrupt state agencies has remained a real risk throughout the last 15 years. Similarly, high levels of regulatory pressure by law enforcement agencies have remained a serious obstacle to entrepreneurs and investors. In the paper, we first describe the scope of the problem, and then analyze why despite repeated attempts the Kremlin has not been able to solve the issue.
Since 2003, by decision of the Presidium of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, « Scientific Works of the Free Economic Society of Russia» are included in the «List of leading scientific journals and publications» produced in the Russian Federation in which basic scientific results of dissertations for the degree of doctor and candidate of sciences should be published.
Предмет/тема. В статье показано, что основной проблемой социально-экономического развития монопрофильных городов Ямало-Ненецкого автономного округа является узкая специализация хозяйства, основанная на эксплуатации нефтегазовых ресурсов. Методология. Методологической базой для достижения поставленных в статье целей выступают системный подход и статистические методы анализа. Результаты. Исследование проведено на примере городов Ноябрьск, Муравленко, Губкинский, являющиеся центрами добычи углеводородов. В исследуемых городах сложился узкосырьевой характер хозяйства, что делает их экономику неустойчивой, а перспективы развития зависят от истощения нефтегазовых месторождений и конъюнктуры рынков углеводородного сырья. Обосновывается необходимость перехода от узкосырьевой специализации к многоотраслевому хозяйству путем расширения экономической базы и отраслевой структуры экономики. Область применения результатов. Результаты исследования могут быть использованы при решении проблем развития сырьевых центров, как в Ямало-Ненецком автономном округе, так и Арктической зоне Российской Федерации в целом. Выводы. Необходима диверсификация и реструктуризация отраслевой структуры хозяйства городов Арктической зоны с узкосырьевой специализацией, что позволит им успешно развиваться как в период снижения, так и полного истощения нефтегазовых ресурсов.
National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Moscow) and author has been researching the leasing market of Russia for 18 years. Particular attention in the article presents the dynamics that characterizes the development of market in the country by value of new contracts, the largest leasing portfolios, calculated author of segmental structure of the leasing market and regional structure. This article presents the results of the econometric analysis of the relationship of the value of new contracts with the amount of advances, terms of contracts and lease rate per cent. Exploring the structure of financing of leasing operations, the author has developed a new approach to determining leverage leasing projects.
In this monograph revealed the key theoretical and practical issues in the field of investment projects funding with financial market instruments used by the real sector corporations. The authors proposed a scientific model of forecasting the level of interest rates in the economy with the aim of building plans for its activities, and also provides a mechanism to identify the most effective instrument of investment project funding. The main provisions are designed for the real sector of corporate economy. The authors have discussed in detail the tools of state regulation of the process of interaction between the financial and real sectors and put forward recommendations to address the shortcomings in the existing regulation. This monograph is intended for students, teachers and researchers, as well as professionals working in the field of financial management in business organizations.
Beer was the drink of choice in many ancient societies and throughout the past centuries in large parts of the world. Right now, it is globally by far the most important alcoholic drink, in volume and value terms. The largest brewing companies have developed into global multinationals. The beer market is characterized by strong growth in emerging economies, by a substantial decline of (per capita) beer consumption in traditional markets, and a shift to new products. There has been a strong interaction between governments (politics) and markets (economics) in the beer industry. For centuries, taxes on beer or its raw materials were a major source of tax revenue for governments. Governments have also regulated the beer industry for reasons related to quality, health, and competition. The beer market is not only an interesting sector to study in itself but also yields important general economic insights. This book is the first economic analysis of the beer market and brewing industry. It comprises a comprehensive and unique set of economic research and analysis on the economics of beer and brewing. The various chapters cover economic history and development, demand and supply, trade and investment, geography and scale economies, technology and innovation, health and nutrition, quantity and quality, industrial organization and competition, taxation and regulation, and regional beer market developments.
National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Moscow) and author has been researching the leasing market of Russia for 19 years. The article presents based on the author's survey of the leasing market dynamics on the value of new contracts and leasing portfolios, structure of the Russian leasing market on major industries such as aircraft leasing, leasing of mechanical equipment, railway rolling stock, car leasing, leasing of real estate, etc., as well as regional structure of leasing. The article contains the author's calculations of the three options of leverage in leasing on the basis of the methodology developed by the author. The article presents the regression model that identifies four factors influence the cost of real estate leasing contracts for 118 deals, identified by the author.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/