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Article

Quadruple Helix Systems and Symmetry: a Step Towards Helix Innovation System Classification

Journal of the Knowledge Economy. 2014. Vol. 5. No. 2. P. 357-369.

Since the appearance of the Triple Helix model of innovations, various extensions of the model to higher dimensions, Quadruple, Quintuple, and N-tuple helices, had been proposed. Systemness of growing number of innovation system patterns can be expected to need classification. Also of no less importance is the way in which the new dimensions are added. This paper argues that while Triple Helix can be formed in a one unique way, the higher extensions can be composed in a number of possible ways, so that the classification can be made according to their topological or symmetry structure. The present paper alongside with presenting one more Triple Helix extension for the fourth dimension, which preserves the Triple Helix model rotational symmetry and comprises non-linear interaction in the joint working of the University, Industry, and Government institutional spheres with complement of an additional actor, Media, is a step to the classification of helix innovation system models on the symmetry base.