In recent years, evaluation and impact assessments (IA) of research and innovation (R&I) policies have become of interest both to scholars and policy makers. This paper examines public programmes and regulations aimed at stimulating R&I in Russian universities. For this purpose, 299 universities were surveyed in 2013–2014 to reveal their demand for relevant policies and the effects of these policies. We surveyed not only users and beneficiaries of the programmes, but also non-participating universities. Based on survey results, we assess the impact of the policies on universities and suggest recommendations to improve state regulations and evaluation practices.
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have been considered as the future vision for the automotive industry. An increasing number of concepts and prototypes have been introduced in the last decade. In parallel with the technological development, recent discussions about global warming and climate change bring public support for emission free vehicles. Despite of the advancements and support, the speed of introduction of FCEVs is still not at the desirable levels. From a transition management perspective, the present paper seeks to answer the underlying factors behind the implementation of the FCEVs. The discussion goes beyond a technical one to cover broad factors and interests of stakeholders with an ‘eagle-eye view’. Following a discussion the key drivers of change for the FCEV sector and wild cards with disruptive effects, the paper proposes a strategic roadmap template to set an agenda for a successful transition towards FCEVs.
The article is dedicated to business model innovation (BMI) from the perspective of its role in today’s competition of large corporate entities. The work aims to make three contributions. First, by relying on strategy-focused and innovation management-focused BMI studies, and linking the two approaches, the author develops the “dynamic concept” of business models’ strategy dimension by bringing the two perspectives together. Second, the work examines how BMI can become a source of sustainable competitive advantage though all the main components of successful business models seem very visible and easy to copy. Third, by unpacking key elements of a business model, the paper discloses what BMI does really mean in terms of concrete changes and how these changes affect a competitive position of the firm.
There is broad consensus that economic development and society welfare correlate with the effectiveness and efficiency of countries’ science, technology, and innovation infrastructure. There is a broad range of actors active in all fields with diverging ambitions, missions, and aims striving for scientific, technological, and innovation excellence. Still one actor alone faces severe challenges in the respective global competition which is why increasingly clusters are formed and quipped with professional management. This raises the question if knowledge diffusion channels function more effective and efficient in organically grown self-organized channels or if targeted public policy intervention is needed to enhance these channels by means of attached cluster management. The article discusses the major conceptual features of cluster management and spillovers and the resulting implications for cluster management activities.
The knowledge economy has come a long way before becoming one of the fundamental concepts in scientific and political discourse. The World Bank and the OECD analyze the level of development of the knowledge economy at the global level. However, the transformation of the economy at the regional level is also very important, largely because of the general tendency towards regionalization. This issue is particularly acute for emerging and post-communist countries (including Russia), which are in the process of transition to a market economy. Grounding on the World Bank’s Knowledge Economy Index indicators, the authors developed the Russian Regional Knowledge Economy Index (Russian RKEI). The authors allocated the leading and lagging groups of regions regarding the knowledge economy development as well as the fastest-growing regions. The authors identified critical success factors in the modernization of regional economic systems. Besides, the authors marked the negative trend in the development of the knowledge economy in more than half of Russian regions. On the one hand, this is due to the economic crisis and a reduction in investment; on the other hand, institutional problems continue to restrain economic development. The results can be used in further theoretical and applied studies for both Russia and other transition economies.
Involvement in the global innovation system and the level of ICT influence the technologicalstateoftheBrazil,Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries and their position in the world economy. Many studies were inspired that examined these economies from various prospective. However, only a few have specially focused on information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly in services sectors. This paper aims to contribute to the analysis of the evolution of services ICT systems in BRICS. The main hypothesis of the article is that BRICS has made significant progress in economic cooperation, at the same time, the group has not been equally successful in designing and implementing their own agenda in the technology field. The BRICS are not released at a sufficient level of interaction and advocacy in ICT services, which would increase their role in international trade. The authors observe the retrospective of the process of formation of national innovation systems of thecountry participants of BRICS, consider current trends and challenges in the development of national markets for these services in each member country,and highlight future directions for the development. Then they provide an analysis of BRICS countries’ participation in the international ICT services trade. An estimation of revealed comparative advantage indicators allowed determining the dynamics in comparative advantage for ICT service trade in BRICS. Despite the increase in the volumeof export operations in the trade in ICT services, their level of competitiveness is declining. The most vulnerable to the reduction of revealed comparative advantage was India, at the same time Brazil and South Africa showed the least volatile dynamics. It is argued that the policies aimed at promoting investment and enhancing conditions for trade in ICT services contributed significantly to services exports expansion in BRICS. Based on the analysis, a conclusion is made about the current problems and insufficient level of technical cooperation within the group.
Smart specialisation is currently probably the largest innovation policy experiment in the world. Its aim is to move the EU less developed countries and regions on path of R&D-based growth. This transformation requires not only endogenous knowledge and technology accumulation building but also coupling with international knowledge and production networks. Yet, internationalisation does not seem to be a crucial component in the design and development of Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3), which are at odds with the strong dependence of the EU New Member States (EU-13) on FDI and global value chains. Our analysis is grounded in the key ‘stylised facts’ related to EU-13 R&D&I activities, and the complex link between innovation and internationalisation. Innovation systems in the EU-13 are fragmented and based on largely public R&D systems and on predominantly production-oriented foreign direct investment (FDI). This structural weakness calls for stronger support for innovation-oriented activities and for the integration of global value chains (GVCs) and FDI into local innovation systems. We explore the main obstacles to the internationalisation of smart specialisation and discuss ways to overcome them. We highlight the policy action areas related to providing support for technology upgrading in relation to the internationalisation of smart specialisation.
This study determines the factors that exert important influences on the success of collaborative research and development (R&D) projects. The study uses data from a cross-European sample of collaborative R&D projects under EU Framework Programs, supported with relevant qualitative evidence from a series of case studies, and focuses on three levels of possible factors: market, firm, and project levels. The results indicate that partnering firm innovation experience, innovation protection mechanisms, effective management of rules and regulations, and the existence of commercially driven projects that open up new technological areas are the factors with the strongest significant effect on product and/or process innovation. The findings contribute to understanding of how and under what conditions innovation can be developed in collaborative R&D projects.
Competencies and skills of the doctorate holders are frequently perceived a guarantee for professional careers in many occupations and a solid contribution to scientific excellence, country innovation capability, and economic and societal development. The assumption that doctorate holders are easily integrated in economic endeavors proves wrong which calls for a revision of the widespread thinking about this extremely specialized and trained people. Ongoing debates neglect the fact that doctoral degrees are academic degrees which testify degree holder’s competence in research which is to be viewed a profession with specific skills. Innovation per se is hardly included in this profession. Also, PhDs are expected to engage in teaching but against their teaching duties they are not obliged to receive education or training of teaching skills. This is even more remarkable since teachers at primary and secondary level are always educated in teaching methods but tertiary level teachers are not. The essay argues that PhDs should be viewed as research professionals and research as a profession. This requires a change in the perception of both by policy makers but does not say that there is an urgent need for policy intervention in regulating the competencies and skills which are included in the respective professional standards. Keywords . . .
Three approaches are developed for assessment of different types of organizational ambidexterity proposed in the relevant literature. The new model for measurement of organizational ambidexterity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) is introduced. The DEA score based on innovation activity inputs and two different performance outputs acts as a proxy for organizational ambidexterity. Sustainability goals and product ambidexterity are also analyzed as the key characteristics of ambidextrous behavior. The introduced three approaches are tested for their aptness to complement each other as well as to support a strategic decision-making. Empirical examples from energy and pharma sectors associate organizational ambidexterity with firms’ performance. We measured the organizational ambidexterity of energy and pharma companies by (1) pursuing long-term versus short-term organizational performance measured as a DEA two-output efficiency score; (2) the share of disruptive products in a company’s activities assessed through the proportion of R&D expenditure or sales; and (3) sustainability versus financial performance of the company, where the Green ranking and participation in innovative financing programs were used as proxies for sustainable development. Positive relation between performance and organizational ambidexterity for energy sector are discovered. At the same time, orientation towards sustainability disrupts performance of pharmaceutical companies. Results of the OA impact on performance are highly industry-sensitive and depend on the methods used in empirical assessment. Our findings suggest that the scarcity of data sources make all three approaches complementary and mainly functional for strategic decision-making.
The paper looks at cooperation models for science, technology, and innovation with clear aims at delivering value and progress in these fields. Such cooperation models have been established in various forms in many countries. One special form of cooperation is the public-private partnership which also comes in many different forms. The article is based on the analysis of 20 public-private partnerships located in Austria, Australia, Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Public-private partnerships for science, technology, and innovation have various institutional and organizational models. The common central issue of all different models is an interdisciplinary management committee consisting of both academic and industrial representatives which is responsible for the alignment of all partners’ interests. In addition, public-private partnerships need carefully developed strategies and well-thought-out contractual basis in line with respective stakeholder communication. Frequently, public-private partnerships are established by a small number of partners but extended at later development stages requiring a seamless and transparent partner selection procedure. Equally important is a sustainable financial agreement which allows mid-term and long-term work by the public-private partnerships. Moreover, in the course of globalization, the regulatory requirements for public-private partnerships in countries and regions are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, in addition to statutory regulations, human resources, scientific excellence, and infrastructure are important determinants for locations which aim at providing attractive framework conditions for public-private partnerships. Finally, it must be noted that two different research cultures meet in public-private partnerships: Synergies have to be found between basic academic research and applied industrial research, and they have to be used for mutual added value. Before establishing public-private partnerships formally, particular attention must be paid to so-called competing values. These must be regulated in a contract, and transparent control and sanction mechanisms must be introduced. In so doing, the mistrust associated with divergent interests (for example in relation to intellectual property rights) can be effectively prevented from the outset.
Since the appearance of the Triple Helix model of innovations, various extensions of the model to higher dimensions, Quadruple, Quintuple, and N-tuple helices, had been proposed. Systemness of growing number of innovation system patterns can be expected to need classification. Also of no less importance is the way in which the new dimensions are added. This paper argues that while Triple Helix can be formed in a one unique way, the higher extensions can be composed in a number of possible ways, so that the classification can be made according to their topological or symmetry structure. The present paper alongside with presenting one more Triple Helix extension for the fourth dimension, which preserves the Triple Helix model rotational symmetry and comprises non-linear interaction in the joint working of the University, Industry, and Government institutional spheres with complement of an additional actor, Media, is a step to the classification of helix innovation system models on the symmetry base.
Whereas national and corporate foresight are established instruments for anticipatory Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) policy and innovation strategy respectively, regional foresight is a rather new phenomenon in this arena. Placed in between national and corporate foresight, regional foresight can be considered to fulfill a bridging role by taking advantage of the corporate foresight done at corporations which is based in the regions and by focusing on the broader national foresight and the related challenges covered by these studies. In addition, regional foresight also involves stakeholders who might be engaged in national as well as corporate foresight, but presumably these stakeholders play a more important and prominent role in the regional foresight. Also, it is understood that regional networks are important for the successful implementation of the results. Also, at the regional dimension, it shows that stronger personal linkages exist than in national or corporate foresight. The article introduces and discusses two regional foresight case studies in Russian regions, namely, Bashkortostan and Samara. Regional foresight in both case studies was designed to mirror the quadruple helix instead of focusing on the triple helix only as it is done in many other regional foresight cases; e.g., the focus was extended beyond the science, government, and industry stakeholders by including civil society as well. However, the limitation of the case studies is the modest participation and representation of the innovative industry sectors which is also due to the general weakness of Russian industry overall. Still it is found that both cases not only created reasonable momentum for developing the regions in the STI dimension but also even broader economic and social welfare dimension.
The central research question of this paper is how a regional or national (spatial) innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystem (SIEES) can function in a sustainable mode under conditions of uncertainty of an external environment. As an attempt to answer this question, the authors consider to approach the idea of sustainable development from the standpoint of a nonlinear dynamic stability of open systems through information exchange. Addressing this issue as a multi-criteria decision problem, the authors integrate the concept of the “Innovative Helix” and its modifications, which are describing the interaction of science, government and business, as well as formal methods of game theory and business simulation games as a basis for modeling the process of sustainable development in a spatial innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystem. The purpose and interest of the article is to provide input for further discussion on these and other issues related to organizing and governing the interaction of key stakeholders in such arrangements. In practical terms, also a first case study for Russia will be designed and set up for further discussion.
The objective of our paper is to explore the extent to which the research collaborations could be an impact on the scientific performance of academic institutions. The analysis is based on data for 241 universities in Russia for 2015–2016 obtained from different sources: Interfax (privately held independent major news agency in Russia) National Ranking of Universities, monitoring of efficiency of activity of educational organizations of higher education (launched by Information-Computing Centre of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation), and Russian Science Citation Index (largest Russian information and analytical portal in science, technology, medicine, and education and electronic library of scientific publications with 28 mlns of documents). We consider the number of citations of publications to evaluate university performance in Russia. To this end, we develop a non-overlapping generation model to evidence the theoretical idea of research externalities between academic institutions. Moreover, we implement different empirical models to test for the effect of external scientific collaborations on the institutional research quality by Federal District and scientific field. The results confirm an important positive impact of co-authoring process.
In the present paper we analyze what an effect may have international collaboration on regional markets. We compare two Norwegian counties with very different profiles in terms of how international or regional cooperation affect the synergy generated among the geographical, technological, and organizational distributions of firms. This synergy is much larger in the rural region with international industry than in the region with a strong knowledge infrastructure. International firms can take the role of knowledge brokers in lagging regions with weak knowledge institutions. The methodological contribution of this study is that we translate the synergy (abstractly measured in bits of information) into more familiar economic terms, such as turnover for the special case of domestic-foreign collaborations. The analysis is based on Norwegian data, as Norway is a small country with an open and export-oriented economy. Data for Norway is publicly available in great detail. The triple helix synergy caused by firms with foreign ownership is a new indicator of the international contribution to the efficiency of the innovation system in a region. The indicator can also be interpreted as a measure of the attractiveness of regional industries to international corporations which entails the perspective for international technology transfer and the access of regional industry products to global markets.