«Щета убытка и прибытка…»: хозяйственная книжность старообрядцев как форма конфессиональной письменно-книжной культуры
In article the analysis of a special type of a confessional Old Believe bookishness – an economic book culture is undertaken. The author of article suggests carrying to an Old Believe confessional bookishness and monuments of economic culture. They were included in communal libraries along with ascetic and learning collections. That fact is represented to the most important that the Old Believers economic culture had distinct confessional character. Economic documents of old believe communities and their representatives form special economic area of Old Believers confessional bookishness where economic rationalism and the scrupulous account with idea of blessed wealth and a salutary profitable activity for the belief benefit merged.
n system of confessional and economic values, institutes and installations a staroveriya synthesis of traditions of an orthodox civilization and post-traditional society was carried out. Mentality of Old Belief owners and economic ethic showed basic possibility of development of society out of the western model of a property perception, historical reality of modernization on the basis of the Russian orthodox values developing in Old Belief and deformed in the Russian society in national scales by transformations of Peter I and his followers.
The collection of articles covers a perspective of history of Russian entrepreneurship. The main subject of articles - factors of formation of ideas of property and business in Russia XVII-XX centuries.
In the article is analyzed the use of corruption by the old believers in Russia in the 18 – first part of the 19th century to counteract the repressive tendencies of the state politics towards the old belief, to preserve and strengthen the old believers communities. The author makes a conclusion on the meditative character of such a defensive-corruption system, which was salving the negative sides of the state politics and was ensuring further development of old believers entrepreneurship.
Yu.A. Petrov – the scientist with a world name and big scientific authority, the author more than 200 articles and monographs. He directed several very significant scientific projects, acted as the editor-in-chief and the organizer of preparation of a number of encyclopedias, collective monographs and collections of articles. Through all creativity of Yu.A. Petrov there passed the "financial" subject, history of the "Moscow" banks of the second half of the 19th century Besides, under its edition and with its participation monumental works on history of the State bank of Russia were published. An important subject of works of Petrov – history of the Russian businessmen. He pays much attention in the creativity to relationship of businessmen and the authoriry.
The scientific almanac contains articles on various problems of history of Old Belief. In articles political, economic problems of history of Old belief, and also evolution of culture of Old Belief community are analyzed. The almanac includes historiographic reviews and information on scientific actions.
The first business interest associations in Russia in 19th c. aroused on Old Belief confessional base and gained high economic effectiveness. Old Believers communities coordinated economic activities of hundreds and thousand the large and small enterprises belonging formally to their members. All three sectors of entrepreneurs, managers and workers formed this mix association. Members of association acted in the industry, trade, but also in agriculture. Top management of such associations was carried out by the largest businessmen making the Council of trustees accountable to a community. Confessional links were used as a network to support goods flow. The whole branches was organized as a common network where businesses of the Old Believers had differentiation in their functions / with some of them purchasing raw materials, others processing them, and still others engaging in retail and wholesale trade. All of the components of this network were under control of the Old Believer merchants of the same denomination. At the initial stage of the industrialization business associations of the Old Believers played an important part in organizational, economic and technical modernization of Russia’s trade and industry sectors.
The factors of territorial placement of the Old Believe centers in late 18th - to the first half of the 19th century, moved from the periphery to Moscow and Petersburg, the largest commerce and industry enclaves of the European Russia come to light in the article. Under the influence of social cultural tradition and the spiritual concept released from etatism "Moscow – the Third Rome" Moscow became the main confessional center of leading denominations.