Syntactic and Morphosyntactic Properties of Postpositional Phrases in Beserman Udmurt as Part-of-Speech Criteria
The goal of this paper is to analyze and reassess the criteria according to which a class of postpositions is distinguished in the Beserman dialect of Udmurt. This class is traditionally divided into inflected and non-inflected postpositions. Analysis of syntactic and morphosyntactic properties of these two subclasses shows that items traditionally labeled as inflected postpositions form a homogeneous group and show noun-like behavior in most cases, while non-inflected postpositions are heterogeneous. Based on this analysis, we propose to single out a part-of-speech class of relational nouns and show that the rest of the postpositions could be further divided into subclasses with different behavior. The study is based on the data obtained during fieldwork in 2009–2015 in Udmurtia (for Beserman) and on corpus data (for literary Udmurt).
The present study is devoted to the category of preverbs in the Tegi dialect of Khanty. While there are no descriptions of this category in reference grammars of the language, in dictionaries such lexemes are marked as “verbal particles”. Even though they form regular combinations with verbs there is hardly any considerable difference between preverbs and adverbs. Therefore the aim of this work was to prove that the lexemes under study form a separate category of preverbs.
The article describes sentence substitutes from functional perspective. Scientists still concider it difficult to define sentence substitutes in terms of classification of parts of speech.
The paper presents statistical data on POS distribution in the beginnings and the ends of everyday Russian utterances. The material for this study was a morphologically annotated subcorpus of the ORD corpus of spoken Russian with volume of 149737 tokens and containing fragments of everyday speech of 213 people of different gender, age, and professional groups. In the proposed study, the method of n-gram analysis, which is typically employed in computational linguistics to construct probabilistic language models, was used. In the subcorpus as a whole, the most frequent POS turned out to be verbs (17.23%), personal pronouns (15.60%), nouns (14%), particles (13%), and conjunctions (9%). However, in the initial position of spoken utterances the most frequent POS are particles (19.99%) and conjunctions (12%), and in the final position of utterances the verbs and nouns are used more often than others. The former are more typical for interrogative (27.66%) and narrative (25.42%) utterances, and the latter are frequently used in exclamative (29.95%) and narrative (24.28%) utterances. Besides, the most typical bigrams and trigrams in the beginning of utterances started with a particle and their probabilities are presented. A high percentage of syntactic models containing particles in the initial position of utterances leads us to the assumption that these units have special pragmatic functions, associated with marking phrase boundaries. Statistical data obtained here may be used for modeling of everyday utterances for the variety of dialogue systems and for improvement of Russian speech recognition systems.
In Bagvalal (East Caucasian), native place names show strongly reduced morphological inflection. They combine with spatial suffixes identical to those used on nouns and spatial adverbs and with attributive and plural suffixes identical to those of nominal genitive and plural and thus have mixed adverbial nominal morphology. Place names are unmarked in spatial function but marked in argument position. To occur in the latter, they require a nominal head with an abstract meaning such as ‘village’ or ‘place’. Bagvalal place names are syntactically adverbs rather than nouns. Considering syntax and morphology together, they constitute a morphosyntactic class intermediate between nouns and adverbs. Mixed properties of Bagvalal place names are functionally motivated. Place names are, first of all, locations (hence spatial inflection), but also territories associated with specific ethnic and sub-ethnic groups (hence attributive and plural inflection). I conclude by briefly reviewing evidence from some other East Caucasian languages, to show that Bagvalal is not an exception.
The paper presents the results of studying the problem of the classification of parts of speech in the Arabic literary language in the writings of Arab researchers. Study of principles of allocation of parts of speech in Arabic grammatical tradition is part of the complex research of principles of definition of grammar classes in Arabic; the relevance of the topic is determined by the importance of typological analysis of the criteria for the classification of parts of speech in the languages of different structure and peculiarity of the language situation in the Arab countries, characterized by diglossia of monogenetic idioms of different types - literary language synthetic system and spoken dialect systems with strongly-marked analytism. The study material is essential to the theory of linguistic doctrines currently insufficiently equipped with provisions and conclusions of the Arabic national grammatical tradition; furthermore, standardization of definitions of part-of-speech criteria in the Arabic literary language is becoming increasingly actual being a necessary element for the unification of part-of-speech (POS) tagging for computer analysis of the Arabic corpus studies.
Comparative analysis of the basis and criteria for allocation of parts of speech in Russian and Arabic is an effective methodological technique of realization of the program of the discipline "Basic course of Arabic language" for Russian-speaking audience.
The book is intended primarily for the first year undergraduate students but can be also recommended for students of other levels and adults who would like to improve their pronunciation and review the basics of the English grammar. Its main objective is complex revision and development of the student’s knowledge of English phonetics and morphology (group of nominal parts of speech) in order to advance both receptive (listening, reading) and productive (speaking, writing) skills. The Level of English before starting the course is supposed to be not lower than A2-B1 according to the CEFR.
The book contains seven chapters, each devoted to a separate topic, and can be logically divided into two main parts: phonetics (Chapter I) and morphology (Chapters II – VII). All chapters include theoretical part and exercises that are aimed at both recognizing the studied linguistic phenomenon (on its own and within short contexts) and using it. The exercises comprise such tasks as matching words with their definitions, multiple choice, completing sentences with appropriate words, matching parts of sentences, translating, analyzing sentences and texts, creating one’s own texts. The chapters of the book can be studied in any order.
The presentation of linguistic theory is based on the classic and recent books by Russian and foreign scholars. The priority was given to Russian books as taking into consideration the background and typical problems of Russian learners of the English language. The illustrative examples and material for exercises comes from a variety of sources (fiction, encyclopedic and media resources, academic journals, monolingual English dictionaries) in order to demonstrate how the studied linguistic units function in different contexts and text genres.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.