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## Quartic double solids with icosahedral symmetry

We study quartic double solids admitting icosahedral symmetry.

The quantum period of a variety X is a generating function for certain Gromov-Witten invariants of X which plays an important role in mirror symmetry. In this paper we compute the quantum periods of all 3-dimensional Fano manifolds. In particular we show that 3-dimensional Fano manifolds with very ample anticanonical bundle have mirrors given by a collection of Laurent polynomials called Minkowski polynomials. This was conjectured in joint work with Golyshev. It suggests a new approach to the classification of Fano manifolds: by proving an appropriate mirror theorem and then classifying Fano mirrors. Our methods are likely to be of independent interest. We rework the Mori-Mukai classification of 3-dimensional Fano manifolds, showing that each of them can be expressed as the zero locus of a section of a homogeneous vector bundle over a GIT quotient V/G, where G is a product of groups of the form GL_n(C) and V is a representation of G. When G=GL_1(C)^r, this expresses the Fano 3-fold as a toric complete intersection; in the remaining cases, it expresses the Fano 3-fold as a tautological subvariety of a Grassmannian, partial flag manifold, or projective bundle thereon. We then compute the quantum periods using the Quantum Lefschetz Hyperplane Theorem of Coates-Givental and the Abelian/non-Abelian correspondence of Bertram-Ciocan-Fontanine-Kim-Sabbah.

Let X be a Q-Fano 3-fold of rank 1 with qQ(X)=qF(X)=2 and KX not Cartier. Let A be a Weil divisor on X such that −KX = 2A. Then dim |A| ≤ 4. Moreover, if dim |A| = 4, then X belongs to the single irreducible family.

**Cremona Groups and the Icosahedron** focuses on the Cremona groups of ranks 2 and 3 and describes the beautiful appearances of the icosahedral group A5 in them. The book surveys known facts about surfaces with an action of A5, explores A5-equivariant geometry of the quintic del Pezzo threefold *V*5, and gives a proof of its A5-birational rigidity.

The authors explicitly describe many interesting A5-invariant subvarieties of *V*5, including A5-orbits, low-degree curves, invariant anticanonical *K*3 surfaces, and a mildly singular surface of general type that is a degree five cover of the diagonal Clebsch cubic surface. They also present two birational selfmaps of *V*5 that commute with A5-action and use them to determine the whole group of A5-birational automorphisms. As a result of this study, they produce three non-conjugate icosahedral subgroups in the Cremona group of rank 3, one of them arising from the threefold *V*5.

This book presents up-to-date tools for studying birational geometry of higher-dimensional varieties. In particular, it provides readers with a deep understanding of the biregular and birational geometry of *V*5.

We study singular Fano threefolds of type $ V_{22}$.

We introduce the notion of an instanton bundle on a Fano threefold of index 2. For such bundles we give an analogue of a monadic description and discuss the curve of jumping lines. The cases of threefolds of degree 5 and 4 are considered in a greater detail.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.