Оценка эффективности взаимодействия международных институтов в процессе глобального управления
The past decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the world around us. One of the major trends is “proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges” leading to presumed fragmentation of global governance. However, “contested multilateralism” has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and a place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions leadership. Thee most visible recent cases include G20, BRICS, and APEC, with the latter gaining importance regionally and globally. The new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. The transformative trends in international relations, emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions, put together, define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the international institutions cooperation models effectiveness. To help build the analytical framework for the study this article undertakes three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward the hypotheses for research. It is assumed that to compensate for their inefficiencies the summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. It is expected that the modes of the summitry institutions’ engagement with the other international organizations reflected in the leaders’ discourse would be indicative of their place and role in global governance architecture, imputed to them at their launch and subsequent evolution. The hypothesis further suggests that the “governing in alliance” mode enhances the summitry institutions’ effectiveness, however, their use is not mutually exclusive. They coexist in the informal summit institutions engagement with other international organizations. The choice is defined by the policy area and type of organizations. In conclusion the article presents findings drawing on the methodology approbation on the case of BRICS engagement with other international organizations in the global governance process. The results confirm that the forum choice of engagement model reflects its role and place in global governance architecture. To maximize benefits from the forum cooperation BRICS engage with relevant international organizations on their agenda priorities at different institutional levels. Two types of engagement are typical for BRICS: “catalytic engagement” (exerting an influence for international organizations’ changes through endorsement or stimulus, or compelling them to reform) and “parallel treatment” (creation of own mechanisms). Establishing new institutions BRICS consistently strengthen cooperation with other international institutions. BRICS choice of the model depends on the policy area, phase in the cooperation development and perception of the organization’s relevance to the BRICS respective objectives. With the UN organizations and the WTO engagement develops on the model of catalytic influence, whereas with the G20 BRICS intention to engage on the model of “governance in alliance with multilateral institutions” remained unrealized.