Market size of the media industry and freedom of press: an empirical study
This paper empirically shows that the market size of the media sector is important for freedom of the press, in addition to the wealth of the country and type of political regime. I estimated freedom of the press using three variables: size of the media market, GDP per capita and the type of political regime. Freedom of the press was estimated using data for 48 countries from 2006 till 2009. The most important variable influencing freedom of the press is the type of political regime, but the size of the media market is also important. In countries with a larger media market, the press is freer
This paper explores the moderator effect of firm size on the relation between different intangible resources and companies' performance. By analysing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and large companies, the authors examine the differences in the employment of six types of intangible resources: human resources, management resource capabilities, innovation and internal process capabilities, customer loyalty and networking capabilities. Dummy regression is applied to establish the differential effect in the impact of these intangibles on firm performance, measured by return on assets (ROA). This study provides econometric justification using a database of more than 1,400 European public companies. The time period for the investigated data covers ten years, from 2004 to 2013. The findings revealed that SMEs have less endowment of almost all of the analysed intangible resources. At the same time, in comparison with large companies, SMEs benefit more from developing human resources, innovation and internal process capabilities.
The focus of this article is the methodological aspect of political activism determinants identifying; specifically variants of handling with categorical predictors which hypothetically explain the level of activism. When using regression for explaining the issue, one may transform such predictors into dummy variables. Such a popular solution makes the model bulky and causes troubles with assessing this model’s quality. Moreover, if a researcher wants to consider interaction effects of the mentioned predictors, the supernumerary combinations of the mentioned predictors values are pended because regression modeling does not take into account the degree of similarity of the mentioned predictors values’ effects. The article authors proposed CHAID as the alternative to the mentioned solution. The research’s aim was i) a comparison of the two mentioned methods leaning on their a priori known properties; ii) arguing CHAID’s some theoretical advantages comparing to logistic regression, iii) parallel implementing the two methods, iv) a comparison of gained empirical results and v) arguing that it is useful to examine multiple interaction effects when developing a predictive model. The raw data were extracted from ESS 2012. The dependent variable was Political activism; the hypothetical predictors belonged to the socio-economic bloc of the Panel.
This article considers the freedom of the press concept in liberal legal doctrine of late XIX – early XX century. The author presents an overview, how the place of freedom of the press in the system of individual rights and personal freedoms was determined; characterizes ideas of legal scholars concerning optimal limits and possible guarantees of realization of freedom of the press.
The subject of this article is the explication of segmentation and profiling of media communications. The rationale is based on a combination of interdependent industrial and educational determinants. A case study method is used on the example of the best practices of National Research University Higher School of Economics, where ‘Media communications’ was developed. It is an innovative direction for the Russian educational space, which is currently included in the curriculum of more than ten universities of the country (not only in the federal center but in the regions as well). The research also involved a secondary analysis of statistical data. The productivity of this direction is de-termined both for the Russian media industry and higher education.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.