Оценка материально-технической базы науки: вопросы классификации научного оборудования
Science and technology are seen globally as key drivers of economic growth. At the same time, international and Russian experiences show that balanced and harmonised development of all components in the S&T sphere is crucially important, including research facilities and equipment. Government policy should be supported by holistic and as comprehensive as possible datasets that describe the state and quality of R&D facilities and equipment. Such statistical and empirical data must meet certain specific requirements regarding their completeness and objectivity. The facilities and equipment that R&D organisations have access to are currently represented by a limited set of generalised value indicators. These indicators are usually insufficient to provide adequate information about the structure and technological level of specific facilities. In particular, research equipment is not covered by regular and detailed statistical monitoring. This is due to the wide range of instruments, devices, and installations used, many of which are highly specialised; to methodological problems; and the high costs associated with describing or classifying research equipment. Extending the statistical coverage of R&D equipment and facilities is only possibly by systematising and structuring their numerous and diverse units and by applying a specialised classification. This paper presents the main approaches to classifying R&D equipment and facilities and proposes a novel classification scheme for research equipment designed by the authors.