Оценка материально-технической базы науки: вопросы классификации научного оборудования
Science and technology are seen globally as key drivers of economic growth. At the same time, international and Russian experiences show that balanced and harmonised development of all components in the S&T sphere is crucially important, including research facilities and equipment. Government policy should be supported by holistic and as comprehensive as possible datasets that describe the state and quality of R&D facilities and equipment. Such statistical and empirical data must meet certain specific requirements regarding their completeness and objectivity. The facilities and equipment that R&D organisations have access to are currently represented by a limited set of generalised value indicators. These indicators are usually insufficient to provide adequate information about the structure and technological level of specific facilities. In particular, research equipment is not covered by regular and detailed statistical monitoring. This is due to the wide range of instruments, devices, and installations used, many of which are highly specialised; to methodological problems; and the high costs associated with describing or classifying research equipment. Extending the statistical coverage of R&D equipment and facilities is only possibly by systematising and structuring their numerous and diverse units and by applying a specialised classification. This paper presents the main approaches to classifying R&D equipment and facilities and proposes a novel classification scheme for research equipment designed by the authors.
The brochure provides an overview of methodological and practical aspects of Russian scientific organisations and universities' participation in international science and technology (S&T) cooperation. The methodological manual offers a systematized approach to conducting international collaboration and contains reference information on S&T potenatial and S&T cooperation programmes of selected foreign countries.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of the project “Development of Instruments for Methodological, Information and Analytical Support of Russia’s Scientific Organizations and Universities’ Participation in International Science and Technology Cooperation” (Subsidy Agreement no 14.602.21.0013 dated August 3, 2016 with the Russian Ministry of Education and Science in the framework of the federal targeted programme “Research and Development in Russian Priority S&T Development Areas in 2014–2020”, unique identification number – RFMEFI60216X0013).
Strengthening the motivation, quality and efficiency of researchers’ work is a pressing issue in all countries. One way to address this challenge is by introducing flexible remuneration mechanisms which are country-specific yet still share certain basic principles such as the relationship between compensation and research productivity. Improving researchers’ remuneration is particularly urgent now in Russia given the systemic problems in the country’s R&D sector and given new policy measures adopted since 2012 to try to address the problem of compensation for researchers. This paper contributes new evidence from Russian researchers, R&D managers, and government representatives collected via a survey and focus group discussions on the desirability and efficiency of the current remuneration policy. Although most members of Russia’s scientific community do not question the necessity and relevance of the government’s ‘efficient contract’ initiative in the R&D sector, the implementation of this policy has had a more mixed response. The reasons and effects of this controversy are discussed below.
Licensing is one of the main administrative tools used for state regulation of the economy. It can serve as a fairly accurate «barometer» of the administrative burden, which the government provides the business with.
This article analyzes the licensing of certain types of economic activities in the context of the whole system of administrative regimes of the economy. The authors conclude that the legal acts regulating the licensing can be a model for the regulation of other administrative regimes.
Special attention is paid to the history of transformation of the licensing system for the past 20 years, including the period of the administrative reform. The paper assesses the effectiveness of the measures taken in the framework of the reform. The authors concluded that, despite some deregulation, in many cases replacing licensing in other administrative regimes has maintained or even increased the amount of administrative pressure.
The authors examined in detail the innovations of the Federal Law of May 4, 2011 N 99- FZ «On Licensing Certain Types of Activities», highlighting its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantages of the law are the reduction of the list of licensed activities, the introduction of perpetual licenses, the use of information technology in the licensing procedures. The main disadvantage of the law is increase in terms of administrative procedures for licensing.
In 2012 the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia has created an information system for collecting data on the licensing of certain types of economic activity. The paper contains an analysis of the statistical data obtained by using this system. It allows us to assess the extent and pattern of functioning of the institution of licensing.
The article also provides an analysis of some current problems of licensing: the restriction of places of the licensed activity; the consolidation of licensed activities; the uncertainty of the forms and methods of verifying compliance with the licensing requirements; the lack of communication between the licensing bodies and the tax authorities. According to the analysis of these problems, the authors formulate proposals to improve the licensing system.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.