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## О неравенстве для чисел Бетти гиперкэлеровых многоообразий размерности шесть

We obtain an inequality imvolving Betti numbers of six-dimensional hyperk\"ahler manifolds using Rozansky-Witten invariants described by Hitchin and Sawon.

Let M be a compact hyperkähler manifold with maximal holonomy (IHS). The group H2(M,ℝ) is equipped with a quadratic form of signature (3,b2−3)(3,b2−3), called Bogomolov–Beauville–Fujiki form. This form restricted to the rational Hodge lattice H1,1(M,ℚ)has signature (1, k). This gives a hyperbolic Riemannian metric on the projectivization H of the positive cone in H1,1(M,ℚ). Torelli theorem implies that the Hodge monodromy group Γ acts on H with finite covolume, giving a hyperbolic orbifold X=H/Γ. We show that there are finitely many geodesic hypersurfaces, which cut X into finitely many polyhedral pieces in such a way that each of these pieces is isometric to a quotient P(M′)/Aut(M′), where P(M′) is the projectivization of the ample cone of a birational model M′ of M, and Aut(M′) the group of its holomorphic automorphisms. This is used to prove the existence of nef isotropic line bundles on a hyperkähler birational model of a simple hyperkähler manifold of Picard number at least 5 and also illustrates the fact that an IHS manifold has only finitely many birational models up to isomorphism (cf. Markman and Yoshioka in Int. Math. Res. Not. 2015(24), 13563–13574, 2015).

Let M be a simple hyperk¨ahler manifold, that is, a simply connected compact holomorphically symplectic manifold of K¨ahler type with h 2,0 = 1. Assuming b2(M) 6= 5, we prove that the group of holomorphic automorphisms of M acts on the set of faces of its K¨ahler cone with finitely many orbits. This statement is known as Morrison-Kawamata cone conjecture for hyperk¨ahler manifolds. As an implication, we show that a hyperk¨ahler manifold has only finitely many non-equivalent birational models. The proof is based on the following observation, proven with ergodic theory. Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold of dimension at least three, constant negative curvature and finite volume, and {Si} an infinite set of complete, locally geodesic hypersurfaces. Then the union of Si is dense in M.

Let M be an irreducible holomorphically symplectic manifold. We show that all faces of the Kähler cone of M are hyperplanes Hi orthogonal to certain homology classes, called monodromy birationally minimal (MBM) classes. Moreover, the Kähler cone is a connected component of a complement of the positive cone to the union of all Hi. We provide several characterizations of the MBM classes. We show the invariance of MBM property by deformations, as long as the class in question stays of type (1,1). For hyperkähler manifolds with Picard group generated by a negative class z, we prove that ±z is Q-effective if and only if it is an MBM class. We also prove some results toward the Morrison–Kawamata cone conjecture for hyperkähler manifolds.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.