Query-Based Improvement Procedure and Self-Adaptive Graph Construction Algorithm for Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search
The nearest neighbor search problem is well known since 60s. Many approaches have been proposed. One is to build a graph over the set of objects from a given database and use a greedy walk as a basis for a search algorithm. If the greedy walk has an ability to find the nearest neighbor in the graph starting from any vertex with a small number of steps, such a graph is called a navigable small world. In this paper we propose a new algorithm for building graphs with navigable small world properties. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it is free from input parameters and has an ability to adapt on the fly to any changes in the distribution of data. The algorithm is based on the idea of removing local minimums by adding new edges. We realize this idea to improve search properties of the structure by using the set of queries in the execution stage. An empirical study of the proposed algorithm and comparison with previous works are reported in the paper.
Similarity searching has a vast range of applications in various fields of computer science. Many methods have been proposed for exact search, but they all suffer from the curse of dimensionality and are, thus, not applicable to high dimensional spaces. Approximate search methods are considerably more efficient in high dimensional spaces. Unfortunately, there are few theoretical results regarding the complexity of these methods and there are no comprehensive empirical evaluations, especially for non-metric spaces. To fill this gap, we present an empirical analysis of data structures for approximate nearest neighbor search in high dimensional spaces. We provide a comparison with recently published algorithms on several data sets. Our results show that small world approaches provide some of the best tradeoffs between efficiency and effectiveness in both metric and non-metric spaces.
A new data structure for efficient similarity search in very large datasets of high-dimensional vectors is introduced. This structure called the inverted multi-index generalizes the inverted index idea by replacing the standard quantization within inverted indices with product quantization. For very similar retrieval complexity and pre-processing time, inverted multi-indices achieve a much denser subdivision of the search space compared to inverted indices, while retaining their memory efficiency. Our experiments with large datasets of SIFT and GIST vectors demonstrate that because of the denser subdivision, inverted multi-indices are able to return much shorter candidate lists with higher recall. Augmented with a suitable reranking procedure, multi-indices were able to significantly improve the speed of approximate nearest neighbor search on the dataset of 1 billion SIFT vectors compared to the best previously published systems, while achieving better recall and incurring only few percent of memory overhead. © 2014 IEEE.
We propose a novel approach to solving the approximate k-nearest neighbor search problem in metric spaces. The search structure is based on a navigable small world graph with vertices corresponding to the stored elements, edges to links between them, and a variation of greedy algorithm for searching. The navigable small world is created simply by keeping old Delaunay graph approximation links produced at the start of construction. The approach is very universal, defined in terms of arbitrary metric spaces and at the same time it is very simple. The algorithm handles insertions in the same way as queries: by finding approximate neighbors for the inserted element and connecting it to them. Both search and insertion can be done in parallel requiring only local information from the structure. The structure can be made distributed. The accuracy of the probabilistic k-nearest neighbor queries can be adjusted without rebuilding the structure.
The performed simulation for data in the Euclidean spaces shows that the structure built using the proposed algorithm has small world navigation properties with 2log(n) insertion and search complexity at fixed accuracy, and performs well at high dimensionality. Simulation on a CoPHiR dataset revealed its high efficiency in case of large datasets (more than an order of magnitude less metric computations at fixed recall) compared to permutation indexes. Only 0.03% of the 10 million 208-dimensional vector dataset is needed to be evaluated to achieve 0.999 recall (virtually exact search). For recall 0.93 processing speed 2800 queries/s can be achieved on a dual Intel X5675 Xenon server node with Java implementation.
Graph-based approaches are empirically shown to be very successful for the nearest neighbor search (NNS). However, there has been very little research on their theoretical guarantees. We fill this gap and rigorously analyze the performance of graph-based NNS algorithms, specifically focusing on the low-dimensional (d≪logn) regime. In addition to the basic greedy algorithm on nearest neighbor graphs, we also analyze the most successful heuristics commonly used in practice: speeding up via adding shortcut edges and improving accuracy via maintaining a dynamic list of candidates. We believe that our theoretical insights supported by experimental analysis are an important step towards understanding the limits and benefits of graph-based NNS algorithms.
A new data structure for efficient similarity search in very large datasets of high-dimensional vectors is introduced. This structure called the inverted multi-index generalizes the inverted index idea by replacing the standard quantization within inverted indices with product quantization. For very similar retrieval complexity and pre-processing time, inverted multi-indices achieve a much denser subdivision of the search space compared to inverted indices, while retaining their memory efficiency. Our experiments with large datasets of SIFT and GIST vectors demonstrate that because of the denser subdivision, inverted multi-indices are able to return much shorter candidate lists with higher recall. Augmented with a suitable reranking procedure, multi-indices were able to significantly improve the speed of approximate nearest neighbor search on the dataset of 1 billion SIFT vectors compared to the best previously published systems, while achieving better recall and incurring only few percent of memory overhead.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.