The EU-Russia common space on external security is examined.
The Arctic sea-ice reached record lows in 2007, and again in 2012. In the international news media, these moments were reflected via striking images of polar bears, crumbling icechunks and the use of more alarmist metaphors about global climate change. Through these narratives, and despite the periodic disappearance of climate change from media reports due to issue fatigue, a sharper narrative of climate change has entered public discourse: a new global reality where the future is no longer a given. Going beyond media studies as well as descriptive or highly scientific accounts of the impacts of climate change in the Arctic, this book explores how both historical and contemporary mediations, scientific narratives and satellite technology simultaneously capture and reconstruct this new reality of the Anthropocene, where human activities shape the planet. By highlighting the linkagesbetween science, media, environmental change and geopolitics, the informed contributors to the volume invite the reader to reflect on what is local and what is global in today's connected mediatized world.
The article is devoted to modelling the basic geographical image of the tundra in the light of the geo-space resources of Yamal and Chukotka. The key archetypes, primary signs and symbols, and symbolic spots related to the basic geo-image of the tundra are identified. The image geographical model for the basic geo-image of the tundra is constructed.
Effect of climate change on the populations of commercial fish is widely recognized. However, this recognition is currently insufficient and climate parameters are not incorporated into fishery forecasting models. Major fisheries of northern Russia targeting Alaska pollock, Pacific salmon in the North Pacific, and Atlantic cod in the Barents Sea are now in a good shape and showing record catches. This review discusses how climate change should be taken into account in the management of northern fish stocks in Russia. Given that climate conditions are currently favorable for these fisheries, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of management system and predict how it will behave under less favorable climatic situation. Climate change might play a positive role in short-term perspective, but its role may be even negative in long-term perspective because of the possibility that the management system might lose its effectiveness in favorable conditions. To reduce risks for commercial fish stocks, it is necessary to incorporate an ecosystem-based approach in the management. One opportunity for that is provided by the program of ecological certification of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) which became well established in Russia during the last decade. Without any support from the state, participants of the MSC program educate fishers, fishery managers, and governmental officers towards the use of ecosystem-based approach, specially accounting for the effect of climate change on northern Russian fisheries.