Как разработать простое средство верификации систем реального времени
Control and analysis of the timing of computations are crucial to many domains of system engineering, be it, e.g., for ensuring a timely response to stimuli originating in an uncooperative environment or for synchronizing components in VLSI. Reflecting this broad scope, timing aspects of systems from a variety of domains have been treated independently by different communities in computer science and control. Researchers interested in semantics, verification, and performance analysis study models such as timed automata and timed Petri nets, the digital design community focuses on propagation and switching delays, while designers of embedded controllers have to take account of the time taken by controllers to compute their responses after sampling the environment, as well as of the dynamics of the controlled process during this span. Timing-related questions in these separate disciplines have their particularities. However, there is growing awareness that there are basic problems that are common to all of them. In particular, all these subdisciplines treat systems whose behavior depends upon combinations of logical and temporal constraints; namely, constraints on the temporal distances between occurrences of events. Often, these constraints cannot be separated, as intrinsic dynamics of processes couples them, necessitating models, methods, and tools facilitating their combined analysis. Reflecting this fact, the aim of FORMATS is to promote the study of fundamental and practical aspects of timed systems, and to bring together researchers from different disciplines that share interests in modeling and analysis of timed systems and, as a generalization, hybrid systems. Typical topics include (but are not limited to): – Foundations and Semantics: Theoretical foundations of timed systems and languages; comparison between different models (such as timed automata, timed Petri nets, hybrid automata, timed process algebra, max-plus algebra, probabilistic models) – Methods and Tools: Techniques, algorithms, data structures, and software tools for analyzing or synthesizing timed or hybrid systems and for resolving temporal constraints (e.g., scheduling, worst-case execution time analysis, optimization, model checking, testing, constraint solving) – Applications: Adaptation and specialization of timing technology in application domains in which timing plays an important role (real-time software, embedded control, hardware circuits, and problems of scheduling in manufacturing and telecommunication, etc.)
The article gives an overview of the main approaches to verification of the internal rating methods of analysis of the creditworthiness. The article gives practical advice on the application of these techniques by an example of real internal rating technique.
This volume contains the Post-Conference Proceedings of ISoLA 2006, the 2nd International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation (ISOLA 2006), which was held in Paphos, Cyprus on 15th-19th November 2006, sponsored by EASST and in cooperation with the IEEE Technical Committee on Complex Systems.
This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.
A form for an unbiased estimate of the coefficient of determination of a linear regression model is obtained. It is calculated by using a sample from a multivariate normal distribution. This estimate is proposed as an alternative criterion for a choice of regression factors.