Shia-Sunni Interaction in Greater Central Asia: Retrospective and Current State
This article deals with the Shia-Sunni interaction in north-eastern Iran (Khorasan) and Central Asia. The Sunni-Shia disputes in the area go back to the Middle Ages and after the establishment of Shia dynasty of Safawids (1501 -- 1722) in Iran and Sunni dynasty of Shaibabids (1501 -- 1601) and Ashtarkhanis (1601 -- 1785) in Mawara al-Nahr these disputes thransformed in a very intensive conflict. The current article, based on narrative sources attempts to find the true reasons of this phenomenon and to estimate its influence on history and the future of the region. The central question is that of main factor in this long-lasted conflict: whether it was a policy or a fight for the true faith and religious efforts (jihad). In this regard, overviewing of of religious communities status both of Sunni minorities in Iran and Shia in Mawara al-Nahr, became very important for this issue.
The author has completed the comprehensive analysis of the last Arab League Summit that took place from 27 to 28 SUMMARY 78 АЗИЯ И АФРИКА сегодня№ 9 2010 March 2010 in Sirte (Libya) showing contradictions arising within the organization. These were issues of the first priority: the relationship with Israel in light of expansion of the program of building Jewish settlements in East Jerusalem, the problems of reforming the Arab League etc.. Due to Leagues increased contacts with non Arab states (primarily Turkey and Iran) members of the summit have reviewed a draft treaty submitted by the Arab League Secretary General Amre Moussa, who has suggested to create the Arab Neighborhood Zone. Issues proposed for consideration at the Extraordinary Summit of Arab League in October 2010, are also analyzed.
The article describes materials of the autobiographic composition Sharh-i zindagani-i man ya tarikhi-i ijtima'-i wa idari-i dawra-i Qajariya (The story of my life or history of social relations and system of administration under the Qajars), written by the representative of the class of hereditory tax collectors and members of civil administration Abdallah Mustawfi, which covers vide range of aspects of political and socio-economic history of Persia/Iran under the Qajars and the Pahlawi. Special attention has been paid to traditional units (luti, dashi) of Tehran population.
The presented paper deals with the current religious situation at the Iraqi-Iranian border and describes existing worship practics and pilgrimage (ziyarat) to sacred tombs of Shia Imams descendats (imamzada), located at the area.
Thematic volume of the Gosudarstvo, religija, cerkov' v Rossii i za rubezhom (2/33, 2015) entitled “Hristianskij Vostok: gosudarstva i mezhkonfessional'nye svjazi” [Christian Orient: The States and Interconfessional Relations]; edited by Dr. N. Seleznyov.
A comprehensive study of the state and prospects of scientific and technological cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Iran in the context of the complexity of the international situation around the Russian Federation.
This paper analyzes the role of Russia in nonproliferation global efforts, providing a comprehensive overview on Russian nonproliferation, disarmament and arms control policies. With this aim, it will review the main strategic Russian documents on this topic, its participation in nonproliferation regimes and international initiatives, as well as its political approach to the topic. Russia's role in the Iranian and North Korean nuclear challenges as the main current nuclear proliferation concerns is examined. Based on current international engagement and domestic rules and statements, the paper shows that Russia is, at present, a non-revisionist pragmatic actor; but one that is ready to defy the established legal and political order if a threat to its security or interest is present.
The article deals with the transmission of the Iranian words in the Late Middle Egyptian text of the Satrap Stela (311 B.C.). The problematic fragment with such word is the story about the domain of the ‘Land-of-Wadjet’, which has once been alienated from the possessions of the Buto temples by a foreign ruler named #SryS. Historically it must be Artaxerxes III during or after his invasion in Egypt in 343 B.C. but the name-form corresponds to the Old Persian Xšayṛšān, i.e. Xerxes. This can be explained by a possibility of not only the name Xerxes being used as a generic for Persian kings, like in some Classical texts (the idea by W. Spiegelberg and P. Briant) but also by the confusion of the two names in their Greek form, due to their common component Ξέρξης/–ξέρξης. Unlike Xerxes’ authentic Egyptian cartouches, the hieroglyphic transcription of the Satrap Stela does not show -yṛ- present in the Persian name but absent in its Greek form. Besides the word “satrap” as a denotation of the Satrap Ptolemy, though transmitting the Iranian *ḫšaθrapāna, appears in the title of a document, which must have undoubtedly been Greek originally (Pdrmyz p(A) xSdrpn ~= Πτολεμαίος ὁ σατράπης). One concludes that the use of initially Iranian words was motivated for the compilers of the text by the Greek, and not Iranian, language practice; this is no surprise due to the short duration of the Persian domination in 343-332 B.C. and to the wide presence of Greek-speakers in Egypt after the Macedonian conquest. However, the hieroglyphic transcription of these words corresponds to their Iranian form known in Egypt since at least the 5th century B.C.: probably, the compilers of the text did not care to invent a brand-new transcription for their Greek forms. The only possible exception is the alleged transcription of the name ‘Arses’ (Wr-siA-z ~=Ὀάρσης < ὁ Ἄρσης): the Greek name-form might have been reproduced here, as the original Persian form remained unknown.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.