Влияние региональной интеграции на глобальные цепочки создания стоимости
Contemporary research of different international organizations such as OECD, WTO and UNCTAD concentrate more on global value chains (GVCs) analysis. The article is devoted to reasons for rising fragmentation of production in the world economy and forms of participation in GVCs, which are chosen by countries. The article demonstrates theoretical framework for various forms of integration of countries into GVCs. Furthermore, the authors present retrospective and comparative analysis of several countries' economic development within GVCs.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the latest trends of regional integration and their impact on the development of Global Value Chains (GVCs). The author emphasizes that at the same time GVCs influence main development features of regional integration. In addition to economic effects of trade liberalization the author analyzes different aspects of regional trade agreements (RTAs) and regional initiatives in part of increasing the global value added created by each member-country. An important part of the article is case study of integration between developing countries on African continent, which is one of the most unsuccessful examples of GVC participation. The results and main conclusions of the article can be used to elaborate measures that will maximize benefits of developing countries’ participation in GVCs.
The objective of this paper is to analyse the scope for improving the empirical and methodological foundation of global value chains (GVCs) research and for making relevant political decisions, primarily through applying Foresight methodology. The authors review the major trends of global value chains’ development, specific features of Russia’s participation in them, and the necessary steps to increase the quality and efficiency of this participation, in particular in the changing geopolitical context. Special attention was paid to the theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects of GVC research which are far from adequate (we primarily mean international databases such as TiVA and WIOD developed with the participation of the OECD and the WTO): they need to be supplemented with advanced tools to improve their forecasting potential, as well as their practical and strategic orientation. To this end, approaches which would make it possible to research the interconnections between global processes and trends with regional and national innovation-based development tendencies become of crucial importance. Application of Foresight methodology may significantly contribute to researching the GVC phenomenon, being a major logical step towards creating advanced research and policy tools to mobilise available resources and coordinate stakeholders’ actions to increase global competitiveness. The paper presents several case studies which describe the practical application of Foresight methodology to analyse Russian participation in various GVCs, giving examples of specific product and service groups. The authors conclude that both full-scale Foresight studies and specific components thereof could be applied for the purposes of GVC analysis, strategic planning, and political decision making.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.