### Article

## Noncommutative geometry and Painleve equations

We examine asymptotic expansions of the third Painlevé transcendents for *αδ ≠* 0 and *γ* = 0 in the neighborhood of infinity in a sector of aperture *<*2*π* by the method of dominant balance). We compare intermediate results with results obtained by methods of three-dimensional power geometry. We find possible asymptotics in terms of elliptic functions, construct a power series, which represents an asymptotic expansion of the solution to the third Painlevé equation in a certain sector, estimate the aperture of this sector, and obtain a recurrent relation for the coefficients of the series.

Geometry of second adjointness for p-adic groups.

In this paper we suggest generalizations of elliptic integrable tops to matrix-valued variables. Our consideration is based on the R-matrix description which provides Lax pairs in terms of quantum and classical R-matrices. First, we prove that for relativistic (and non-relativistic) tops, such Lax pairs with spectral parameters follow from the associative Yang–Baxter equation and its degenerations. Then we proceed to matrix extensions of the models and find out that some additional constraints are required for their construction. We describe a matrix version of the ${{\mathbb{Z}}}_{2}$ reduced elliptic top and verify that the latter constraints are fulfilled in this case. The construction of matrix extensions is naturally generalized to the monodromy preserving equation. In this way we get matrix extensions of the Painlevé VI equation and its multidimensional analogues written in the form of non-autonomous elliptic tops. Finally, it is mentioned that the matrix valued variables can be replaced by elements of noncommutative associative algebra. At the end of the paper we also describe special elliptic Gaudin models which can be considered as matrix extensions of the (${{\mathbb{Z}}}_{2}$ reduced) elliptic top.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.